Table 4

Association between BMI and WC trajectories and pre-frailty/frailty: the Tromsø study 1994–2016

Frailty statusModel 1Model 2
Robust
(% (n))
Pre-frail/frail
(% (n))
OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
BMI trajectories62.8 (874)37.2 (517)
 Stable normal BMI27.8 (243)22.4 (116)Ref.Ref.
 Stable overweight46.6 (407)42.4 (219)1.20 (0.91 to 1.59)1.21 (0.90 to 1.62)
 Overweight to obese21.8 (191)26.5 (137)1.62 (1.18 to 2.22)1.67 (1.19 to 2.35)
 Increasing obesity3.8 (33)8.7 (45)3.07 (1.85 to 5.09)3.12 (1.80 to 5.41)
WC trajectories (women)59.4 (392)40.6 (268)
 Stable normal WC26.3 (103)17.5 (47)Ref.Ref.
 Moderately high to high WC49.7 (195)42.5 (114)1.27 (0.84 to 1.94)*1.30 (0.83 to 2.05)*
 Gradually increasing high WC20.9 (82)33.6 (90)2.34 (1.47 to 3.70)*2.17 (1.32 to 3.59)*
 Steeply increasing high WC3.1 (13)6.3 (17)3.04 (1.34 to 6.90)*4.09 (1.54 to 10.90)*
WC trajectories (men)65.9 (482)34.1 (249)
 Stable normal WC22.4 (108)18.1 (45)Ref.Ref.
 Stable moderately high WC41.1 (198)38.5 (96)1.18 (0.77 to 1.80)*1.12 (0.72 to 1.76)*
 Moderately high to high WC31.5 (152)28.9 (72)1.18 (0.75 to 1.85)*1.12 (0.69 to 1.79)*
 Increasing high WC5.0 (24)14.5 (36)3.73 (1.99 to 6.97)*3.36 (1.71 to 6.59)*
  • Model 1: adjusted for age and sex at baseline (*adjusted for age only). Model 2: adjusted for age, sex, educational level, marital/cohabitation status, smoking status, alcohol intake, social support, self-perceived health and physical activity level (*excluding sex) at baseline.

  • BMI, body mass index; WC, waist circumference.