Table 1

Baseline characteristics of participants by frailty status at follow-up: the Tromsø study 1994–2016

Frailty statusP value
Robust
(% (n)) 70.5 (3179)
Pre-frail/frail
(% (n)) 29.5 (1330)
Age in years, mean (SD)51.1 (5.1)52.8 (5.9)0.000*
Women50.6 (1608)55.0 (732)0.006
Smoking status
 Current smokers27.0 (858)33.7 (448)
 Former smokers36.1 (1149)34.0 (452)0.001
 Never36.9 (1172)32.3 (430)
High physical activity level69.5 (2210)56.9 (756)0.001
Married or cohabiting84.3 (2679)80.3 (1068)0.001
Self-perceived health—good75.4 (2394)61.5 (818)<0.001
Social support—enough good friends83.1 (2404)80.5 (976)0.041
Educational level
 Primary/partly secondary32.8 (1041)42.4 (562)
 Upper secondary34.3 (1085)34.2 (453)<0.001
 College/university short16.5 (524)12.8 (169)
 College/university long16.4 (520)10.6 (141)
Alcohol intake
 Never/abstaining9.0 (286)11.9 (158)
 Infrequent drinker76.2 (2419)76.6 (1015)<0.001
 Frequent drinker14.8 (468)11.5 (152)
Prevalent diseases
 Pulmonary disease†8.6 (272)9.5 (126)0.323
 Coronary heart disease‡2.3 (73)4.5 (59)<0.001
 Diabetes0.4 (12)0.6 (8)0.300
 Cancer2.8 (79)3.5 (42)0.210
 Stroke0.6 (19)0.8 (11)0.386
 Peptic ulcer7.0 (197)8.9 (105)0.033
 Comorbidity1.9 (59)2.7 (36)0.070
  • Values are percentages (numbers); p value: χ2 test for categorical variables.

  • *Student’s t-test.

  • †including asthma/chronic bronchitis/emphysema.

  • ‡including angina pectoris/myocardial infarction.