Table 2

Descriptive analysis of individual covariates in the study population

Individual covariates%GHQ-28 score mean (SD)P value*
All participants18.32 (13.9)
Gender<0.001
 Male5017.0 (13.2)
 Female5020.4 (14.6)
Age group (years)†<0.005
 18–24920.7 (12.6)
 25–342418.8 (14.2)
 35–442719.3 (14.8)
 45–542718.1 (13.8)
 55 and more1216.8 (12.5)
Work duration per week (hours)0.01
 <509418.5 (13.8)
 50+622.4 (16.3)
Working on weekend0.03
 Yes6119.3 (14.6)
 No3917.8 (13.1)
Working at night0.8
 Yes2619.2 (14.5)
 No7418.5 (13.9)
Working in staggered hours<0.001
 Yes5919.5 (14.7)
 No4117.6 (12.9)
Commuting duration (hours)0.04
 <17318.3 (13.6)
 1+2719.9 (15.0)
Previous experience of unemployment0.1
 Already known5119.3 (14.2)
 Never known4918.1 (13.8)
Chronic medical conditions<0.001
 Yes2413.5 (16.4)
 No7617.2 (12.7)
  • For each modality of the covariates, proportions among 2803 employees are provided, as well as the mean and SD of the GHQ-28 score.

  • *Statistical significance was calculated using two-sided Student’s t-test or analysis of variance (ANOVA), and adjusted using Holm-Bonferroni correction.

  • †Test is performed with a one-way ANOVA.

  • GHQ-28, General Health Questionnaire.