Table 2

Summary of variables collected at baseline and follow-up by a questionnaire

ThemesVariablesInstrument used where applicableBaselineFollow-up
DemographicsAge, study, marital status, ethnicity, household composition, religionNAxx
Socioeconomic status1. Education1.NAxx
2. Employment status2.NAxx
3. Wealth3.Household Index; Wealth Indexx
4. Parental SES status4.NAx
Migration-related factors1. Migration history1.NAx
2. Generation, length of stay in Europe2.NAx
3. Religion3.NAx
4. Cultural distance and integration4.Berry’s Model of Acculturationx
5. Early factors5.Parental SES, anthropometric indicatorsxx
Health status1. General health1.One item of SF-12xx
2. Questions for women only2.NAxx
3. Specific illnesses and disorders3.Specific illnesses/disordersxx
 a. Blood pressure, hypertension a.NAxx
 b. Cholesterol, dyslipidaemia b.NAxx
 c. Blood sugar, diabetes mellitus, diabetes-related complications c.Diabetic Neuropathy Scorexx
 d. Awareness of chronic kidney disease d.NHANESxx
 e. Chest pain, angina, myocardial infarction e.Rose angina questionnairexx
 f. Leg pain, intermittent claudication, artery stenosis f.WHO/Rose questionnairexx
 g. Stroke g.NAxx
 h. Oral health h.Two questions GLOBE 2014x
4. Family history, changes in the past 5 years4.NAxx
Psychosocial factors1. Dealing with everyday problems1.Masteryxx
2. Recent experiences2.List of threatening experiencesxx
3. Psychological stress3.Two items from INTERHEARTxx
4. Perceived discrimination4.Everyday Discrimination Scalexx
5. Recent well-being5.Patient Health Questionnaire-9xx
Health behaviour1. Smoking1.NAXx
2. Alcohol intake2.NAxx
3. Physical activity3.WHO GPAQ V.2xx
4. Dietary behaviour4.Ghana-specific FPQxx
5. Dietary salt5.WHO STEPSx
6. Use of medication6.Self-reported adherencexx
  • NA, not available; NHANES, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; SES, socioeconomic status; SF-12, 12 item Short Form Survey.