Table 4

Factors associated with the permanent closure of healthcare institutions with time points before and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic

Size of institution*VariablesAdjusted
OR
95% CIP value
LLUL
General hospital*
(n=2019: 323
2020: 329)
Years of operation0.9470.9060.9880.0130
Number of beds0.9940.9890.9990.0256
Herfindahl-Hirschman Index1.0011.0001.001<0.0001
Observation time point: 2020 (Ref=2019)1.0410.3832.8290.9372
Small
hospitals
(n=2019: 1583;
2020: 1603)
Years of operation0.9610.9410.9810.0001
Ownership: public (Ref=private)0.9980.9961.0000.1129
Number of beds1.5210.5524.1920.4173
Herfindahl-Hirschman Index1.0011.0001.001<0.0001
Observation time point: 2020 (Ref=2019)0.9050.6551.2490.5421
Clinics
(n=2019: 33 545;
2020: 34 268)
Years of operation0.9860.9810.99<0.0001
Having beds (Ref=no beds)1.2461.1141.3930.0001
Ownership: public (Ref=private)2.8320.70311.4090.1432
Number of clinics nearby location1.0041.0011.0070.0084
Observation time point: 2020 (Ref=2019)1.0630.9761.1570.1592
  • *There were no permanent closure events in tertiary hospitals. Excluded variables not having any closure events.

  • LL, lower limit; UL, upper limit.