Table 1

Exclusion criteria for study enrolment

Exclusion criteriaRationale
Severe anaemia preceding hospitalisation (Hb <90 g/L).Low likelihood of recovery to non-anaemic status.
Intravenous iron or ESA agent use in 30 days prior to admission.Already receiving pharmacological anaemia treatment.
Cognitive impairment or dementia.
Non-ambulatory or requiring ambulatory assistance.
Not expected to survive hospitalisation.
Non-English speaking.
Inability to complete outcome assessments.
Weight <40 kg.
Uncontrolled sepsis.*
Allergy to iron or erythropoietin.
Inability to receive VTE chemoprophylaxis, apart from those with acute bleeding or recent surgery.
Active thrombosis or myocardial ischaemia.
Uncontrolled hypertension (SBP >190 or DBP >110).
Stroke within 3 months.
Mechanical circulatory support devices.†
Ongoing or large volume haemorrhage defined by >10 units of allogeneic RBCs in preceding 48 hours.
Unclear safety of fixed doses of iron and/or EPO.
  • *Uncontrolled sepsis defined by <48 hours of appropriate antimicrobial therapy and/or lack of definitive source control.

  • †Inclusive of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and implantable and percutaneous ventricular assist devices, with notable exception of intra-aortic balloon pumps, which are permissible.

  • DBP, diastolic blood pressure; EPO, erythropoietin ; ESA, erythropoiesis-stimulating agent; Hb, haemoglobin; RBCs, red blood cells; SBP, systolic blood pressure; VTE, venous thromboembolism.