Table 4

Reasons for participating in predatory conferences (PC)

Academia relatedConference relatedResearcher related
Publish or perish climateLack of support structuresDeceptive informationAttractive venueInvitation as chair/speakerHassle-free submission and reviewInexperienceNaivetéIgnoranceVanityIndifference
Agrawal et al, 202129XXX
Alnajjar et al, 202036XXXX*X*X*
Asadi et al, 201837XXXXX
Asadi, 201932XXXXXX
Begum et al, 202130XX
Bowman, 201424XXX
Elmacioglu et al, 200925XXX
Heasman, 201938XX
Krasowski et al, 201926X
Lang et al, 201934XXX
Lang et al, 202035XX
Looi et al, 202039XXX
Makvandi et al, 202140XXXX
Mercier et al, 201741XXX
Ozdemir et al, 201731XXXX
Pecorari, 202142XXXXXX
Prorokowski, 202143XXX
Sewell et al, 201927XXX
Sonne et al, 202033XXXX
Zhuang et al, 200728X
  • *Empirical findings.