Table 1

Inclusion and exclusion criteria

Inclusion criteriaExclusion criteria
ExposurePredatory conferencesPredatory publishers or journals
SettingAll research settingsN/A
Study designPublications irrespective of their study design. Letters to editor and commentary are included if they were peer reviewed (letters and commentaries were examined for any declaration of having been subject to a peer review process, such as statements to that fact or dates being given for revision/acceptance).Editorials and literature reviews were excluded
LanguageEnglishAll other languages
  • N/A, not applicable.