Table 3

Definitions of predatory conferences (PC)

Agrawal et al,202129“Predatory conferences are like other conferences that provide platform to a scholar to present their research work, but these are organized mainly for profit and these are poorly organized”
Alnajjar et al, 202036“They are low quality dubious events with a ‘blink of an eye’ abstract acceptance without peer review”
Asadi et al, 201837“These fake/bogus conferences introduce themselves as international conferences, which are multidisciplinary and indexed in major scientific digital libraries”
Asadi, 201932N/A
Begum et al, 202130“The fraudulent behaviour of predatory journals/conferences through E-mail solicitations and author’s perspective in unknowingly becoming victims of predatory publishing scheme, by being unaware of the fact that the journals in which they are involved are possibly predatory are highlighted here”
Bowman, 201424“Fraudulent conferences take advantage of scholars for reasons similar to electronic publication: profitability for the hosting ‘organization’ and the desire for recognition by the party invited to make a presentation or chair a round table discussion”
Elmacioglu et al,200925“let us not define what questionable conferences are”
Heasman, 201938PCs are “essentially small meetings, perhaps seminars would be a better term, based in hotel meeting rooms where elegates/speakers present their research and are presented with a certificate of recognition for their contribution”
Krasowski et al, 201926“Conferences or meetings that are of potentially low quality and scientific value. Common themes include organization by companies or individuals as opposed to established scientific communities or organizations, high fees for presenters, and lack of transparency regarding the details of the meeting”
Lang et al, 201934PC are “solely organized to make short term, commercial profit, taking advantage of the naïveté of many scholars and undermining the scientific community through misused time energy and resources”
Lang et al, 202035N/A
Looi et al, 202039From Cress, 2017,” … conferences that appear to be scholarly but are strictly exploitive money-making schemes that cost authors and funding sources time and money”
Makvandi et al, 202140Organizers who “exploit the need for researchers to publish papers in proceedings or affiliated journals by asking for a significant conference attendance charge, using low quality conference business models”
Mercier et al, 201741Organisers of these meetings “usually individuals or companies rather that an organisation or a scientific community, use names similar to reputable conferences and terms such as international or global but charge substantial fees to presenters and have little concern for scientific value”
Ozdemir et al, 201731“Email invitations with flattering language. Some PCs are fictitious conferences, others are ‘‘congress tourism’’ in exotic places for a vacation. But others may promote narrow and certain scientific view of product without the alternatives mentioned”
Pecorari, 202142N/A
Prorokowski, 202143“conferences that are organised with the sole purpose of charging fees from unsuspecting researchers”
Sewell et al, 201927N/A
Sonne et al, 202033From McCrostie, 2018: “Low quality academic meetings, no supporting development of scholarship, no effective peer review, organizer uses deceit (most common is false claim of peer review, hides company headquarters' true location, and conceals it is for-profit”
Zhuang et al, 200728N/A
  • N/A, not available.