Table 1

Commonly used cardiovascular disease risk algorithms

Country/s of useValidated populationPredictor variablesOutcome predicted*Result for individual
NVDPA algorithm2 20Australia≥45 years old without existing CVDAge, sex, systolic blood pressure, smoking status (current or quit within the last year), total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, presence of diabetes (diagnosed via fasting plasma glucose or HbA1c), presence of LVH on echocardiography.†5-year risk of coronary heart disease, stroke or other vascular disease (including peripheral arterial disease and renovascular disease).Categorised as low (<10%), moderate (10–15%) or high (>15%) risk
Framingham Risk Score3Various30–74 years old without existing CVDAge, sex, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, current smoker.10-year risk of angina pectoris, recognised or unrecognised myocardial infarction, coronary insufficiency or coronary heart disease death.Continuous risk score (%)
Pooled Cohort Equations4USACaucasian and African individuals 40–79 years old without existing CVDAge, sex, race (white or other vs African American), total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, on lipid lowering therapy, diabetes, current smoker.10-year risk of ‘hard’ atherosclerotic CVD, that is, coronary death or fatal stroke, or first occurrence of non-fatal myocardial infarction or stroke.Continuous risk score (%)
QRISK35 19UKIndividuals 25–84 years old without existing CVDAge, sex, ethnicity (assume white if unknown: white, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Other Asian, black Caribbean, black African, Chinese, Other), postcode in the UK if known (optional), smoking status (non-smoker, ex-smoker or light/moderate/heavy smoker), diabetes (none, type 1 or type 2), angina or heart attack in a first degree relative <60 years old, chronic kidney disease (stage 3 or more), atrial fibrillation, migraines, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, severe mental illness (includes schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and moderate/severe depression), diagnosis or treatment for erectile dysfunction, on any antihypertensive medication, on atypical antipsychotic medication, on regular steroid tablets, cholesterol/HDL ratio, systolic blood pressure, SD of at least two most recent systolic blood pressure readings, height, weight.10-year risk of angina, myocardial infarction, transient ischaemic attack or stroke.Continuous risk score (%)
  • *If an individual has already developed the CVD outcome/s relevant to an algorithm, they should not have their CVD risk calculated for that algorithm (their score will be invalid).

  • †Additional variables for working out who is automatically ‘high risk’: microalbuminuria, moderate or severe CKD (eGFR<45 mL/min/1.73 m2), diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolaemia, Indigenous (Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander) status.

  • CKD, chronic kidney disease; CVD, cardiovascular disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HbA1c, glycated haemoglobin; HDL, high density lipoprotein; LDL, low density lipoprotein; LVH, left ventricular hypertrophy; NVDPA, National Vascular Disease Prevention Alliance.