Table 6

Individual-level and community-level determinants of use of maternal healthcare in Benishangul Gumuz Region, Northwestern Ethiopia, March 2020–January 2021

VariablesANC fourth+ visitsSkilled delivery carePNC fourth visits
AOR (95% CI)AOR (95% CI)AOR (95% CI)
Level 2 (community-level) variables
Place of residence
 Urban111
 Rural3.82 (1.35 to 10.78)1.22 (0.55 to 2.73)1.14 (0.44 to 2.91)
Distance to health post
 <2 hours111
 ≥2 hours0.25 (0.02 to 2.73)0.49 (0.08 to 2.89)0.88 (0.1 to 10.26)
Household Wealth Index
 First quintile (poor)111
 Second quintile (middle)1.06 (0.69 to 1.61)1.13 (0.78 to 1.63)0.74 (0.46 to 1.21)
 Third quintile (rich)1.46 (0.81 to 2.62)2.23 (1.27 to 3.89)0.43 (0.22 to 1.06)
Level 1 (individual-level) variables
 Age (years)
 < 2011
 20–290.95 (0.27 to 3.31)1.53 (0.42 to 5.62)
 ≥300.86 (0.24 to 3.02)1.33 (0.36 to 4.96)
Women’s educational level
 No formal education111
 Primary school0.92 (0.54 to 1.57)1.71 (1.04 to 2.81)0.69 (0.38 to 1.27)
 High school1.14 (0.57 to 2.28)1.49 (0.77 to 2.89)0.68 (0.3 to 1.52)
 Tertiary education1.43 (0.60 to 3.37)4.12 (1.49 to 11.33)0.52 (0.2 to 1.37)
Partner educational level
 No formal education111
 Primary school1.22 (0.69 to 2.15)0.66 (0.39 to 1.1)1.07 (0.57 to 1.98)
 High school0.87 (0.48 to 1.59)0.76 (0.44 to 1.32)1.49 (0.75 to 2.95)
 Tertiary education1.98 (0.88 to 4.45)0.56 (0.25 to 1.25)3.67 (1.40 to 9.58)
Partner occupational status
 Governmental employee111
 Others1.23 (0.64 to 2.36)0.61 (0.31 to 1.21)1.48 (0.69 to 3.18)
Information on MHS
 No111
 Yes2.13 (1.21 to 3.75)1.23 (0.7 to 2.17)1.04 (0.49 to 2.18)
Age at first marriage (year)
 <18111
 ≥190.92 (0.54 to 1.56)1.13 (0.7 to 1.82)0.98 (0.54 to 1.73)
Age at first pregnancy (year)
 <19111
 ≥191.13 (0.67 to 1.91)1.24 (0.77 to 2.01)0.98 (0.55 to 1.74)
History of pregnancy-related problems during labour for a previous birth
 No111
 Yes1.83 (1.15 to 2.92)0.57 (0.37 to 0.86)1.63 (0.98 to 2.7)
History of stillbirth
 No111
 No1.67 (1.02 to 2.73)0.43 (0.28 to 0.66)0.51 (0.29 o 0.87)
Women’ decision-making power
 Didn’t make a decision111
 Make decision1.74 (1.14 to 2.68)1.22 (0.81 to 1.85)1.8 (1.09 to 2.97)
ANC fourth visit completed
 No11
 Yes2.29 (1.59 to 3.32)10.8 (6.79 to 17.2)
Offered information on danger signs during ANC visit
 No11
 Yes0.7 (0.44 to 1.12)0.71 (0.38 to 1.33)
Time of first ANC visit start
 Within 3 months of GA11
 4–6 months of GA0.66 (0.45 to 0.96)0.39 (0.24 to 0.61)
 After 6 months of GA0.33 (0.16 to 0.68)0.1 (0.03 to 0.24)
Provision of information on health facility delivery
 No11
 Yes0.9 (0.49 to 1.68)1.05 (0.51 to 2.17)
IFA supplementation during pregnancy
 No1
 Yes1.96 (1.11 to 3.49)
Provision of TT during pregnancy
 No1
 Yes1.58 (0.93 to 2.69)
Skilled delivery care
 No1
 Yes1.63 (1.11 to 2.42)
Pregnancy-related problems immediately after labour
 No1
 Yes1.1 (0.55 to 2.21)
  • Bold value indicate statistically significant assocaition

  • AOR, adjusted OR; GA, Gestational age; IFA, iron and folic acid.