Table 1

Demographic, clinical and treatment characteristics of patients before and after applying inverse probability treatment weights (IPTW)

CharacteristicBefore IPTWAfter IPTW
Tocilizumab
N=184 N (%)
No tocilizumab
N=4001 N (%)
SDTocilizumab
N=184 N (%)
No tocilizumab
N=4001 N (%)
SD
Age, years (mean (SD))59.9 (12.3)63.1 (13.2)−0.2559.9 (12.3)59.8 (12.4)0.02
Median (IQR)59.5 (53–68)64 (55–72)−0.2559.5 (53–68)59 (51–68)0.01
Age category0.340.03
 18–4934 (18.5)591 (14.8)34 (18.5)746 (18.6)
 50–5958 (31.5)854 (21.3)58 (31.5)1271 (31.8)
 60–6956 (30.4)1255 (31.4)56 (30.4)1175 (29.4)
 70+36 (19.6)1301 (32.5)36 (19.6)809 (20.2)
Sex0.25<0.01
 Male143 (77.7)2657 (66.4)143 (77.7)3109 (77.7)
 Female41 (22.3)1344 (33.6)41 (22.3)892 (22.3)
Race/ethnicity0.110.06
 White, non-Hispanic23 (12.5)601 (15.0)23 (12.5)527 (13.2)
 Black, non-Hispanic15 (8.2)294 (7.3)15 (8.2)335 (8.4)
 Asian, non-Hispanic29 (15.8)502 (12.5)29 (15.8)641 (16.0)
 Hispanic110 (59.8)2471 (61.8)110 (59.8)2348 (58.7)
 Other7 (3.8)133 (3.3)7 (3.8)150 (3.7)
Body mass index0.230.18
 <2520 (10.9)590 (14.7)20 (10.9)591 (14.8)
 25–2954 (29.3)1137 (28.4)54 (29.3)1153 (28.8)
 30–3462 (33.7)996 (24.9)62 (33.7)1065 (26.6)
 35+48 (26.1)1278 (31.9)48 (26.1)1192 (29.8)
Coexisting conditions
 Diabetes91 (49.5)2136 (53.4)0.0991 (49.5)1989 (49.7)−0.01
 Hypertension109 (59.2)2603 (65.1)−0.12109 (59.2)2361 (59.0)<0.01
Charlson Comorbidity Score0.180.03
 047 (25.5)872 (21.8)47 (25.5)1030 (25.8)
 154 (29.3)947 (23.7)54 (29.3)1177 (29.4)
 233 (17.9)854 (21.3)33 (17.9)676 (16.9)
 3+50 (27.2)1328 (33.2)50 (27.2)1117 (27.9)
Vital signs, median (IQR)
 Maximum temperature38.4 (37.6–39.3)37.5 (37.1–38.3)0.0138.4 (37.6–39.3)38.5 (37.7–39.2)<0.01
 Systolic blood pressure111 (106–120)114 (107–122)−0.15111 (106–120)112 (105–121)−0.01
 Diastolic blood pressure63 (57–70)65 (58–72)−0.1063 (57–70)65 (58–71)−0.01
 Heart rate86 (74–95)83 (72–95)0.0486 (74–95)85 (74–95)−0.01
 Respiratory rate26 (23–30)26 (23–30)0.0126 (23–30)26 (24–30)−0.01
Lab data
 Platelet count, per 109 /L (median)197 (155–261)232 (175–311)−0.34197 (155–261)204 (156–259)<0.01
 Absolute neutrophil count, per 109 /L (median)6.6 (4.7–8.6)8.5 (5.8–12.0)−0.506.6 (4.7–8.6)6.5 (4.6–9.2)0.01
 Lymphocyte count, per 109 /L (median)7.8 (1.1–14.0)4.0 (0.8–10.0)0.257.8 (1.1–14.0)7.3 (1.1–13.0)−0.01
PaO2:FiO2 ratio, mm Hg (median)97.0 (92.0–118.9)96.0 (92.0–110.0)0.0697.0 (92.0–18.9)97.0 (93.0–115.3)0.02
 <200171 (92.9)3798 (94.9)171 (92.9)3764 (94.1)
 ≥20013 (7.1)203 (5.1)13 (7.1)237 (5.9)
Month of enrolment1.57<0.01
 March–April 2020103 (56.0)360 (9.0)103 (56.0)2247 (56.2)
 May–June 202027 (14.7)261 (6.5)27 (14.7)583 (14.6)
 July–August 202030 (16.3)561 (14.0)30 (16.3)649 (16.2)
 September–October 20202 (1.1)213 (5.3)2 (1.1)44 (1.1)
 November 2020–January 202122 (12.0)2606 (65.1)22 (12.0)479 (12.0)
Median days from hospital admission to initiation of mechanical ventilation (IQR)2 (1–5)3 (1–8)−0.402 (1–5)2 (0–4)0.03
Treatment received during hospitalisation
 Remdesivir50 (27.2)2442 (61.0)−0.7350 (27.2)1065 (26.6)0.01
 Corticosteroids71 (38.6)2966 (74.1)−0.7771 (38.6)1521 (38.0)0.01
 COVID-19 convalescent plasma13 (7.1)692 (17.3)−0.3213 (7.1)287 (7.2)<0.017