Table 3

Univariate analysis of demographic characteristics, clinical features, biochemical parameters and sequelae data

CharacteristicsPoor outcome group (LOS=1/2) N=36 (%)Better outcome group (LOS=3/4/5) N=113 (%)Χ2P value
Univariate analysis of demographic characteristics, clinical signs, symptoms and complications (n=149)
Mean age6.5 years6.9 years
Gender2.170.14
 Male15 (41.7)63 (55.7)
 Female21 (58.3)50 (44.24)
Locality
 Rural35 (97.2)107 (94.7)
 Urban1 (2.8)6 (5.3)
Occupation of parents/guardian0.00390.95
 Daily wage labourer26 (72.2)81 (71.7)
 Other10 (27.8)32 (28.3)
JE unvaccinated status13 (36.1)19 (16.8)23.31<0.001
Required hospitalisation for more than 15 days16 (44.4)10 (8.84)3.51520.061
Malnutrition33 (91.7)62 (54.9)4.870.027
Fever onset for >7 days16 (44.4)59 (52.2)0.6670.41
High-grade fever (>38°C)21 (58.3)73 (64.6)0.460.49
Requirement of endotracheal intubation9 (25)16 (14.15)6.170.013
Patient on anticonvulsant31 (86.1)93 (82.3)0.2090.647
Patient on inotropes (dopamine/dobutamine)18 (50)60 (53.1)6.220.013
Vomiting18 (50)65 (57.5)6.790.009
Headache6 (16.6)22 (19.5)0.850.36
Altered sensorium30 (83.3)81 (71.7)7.560.006
Multiple seizures (>1)25 (69.4)78 (69)6.220.013
Rolling of eyeballs26 (72.2)82 (72.6)3.700.054
Hypertonia25 (69.4)72 (63.7)0.390.53
Extensor plantar28 (77.8)74 (65.5)5.790.016
Hypotension (SBP <90 mm Hg/DBP <60 mm Hg)15 (41.7)68 (60.2)5.450.02
Glasgow Coma Score ≤834 (94.4)75 (66.4)10.240.001
Unconsciousness7 (19.4)12 (10.6)10.150.001
Anaemia (Hb ≤80 g/L)10 (27.8)11 (9.7)7.340.007
Hypernatraemia (Na >145 mmol/L)7 (19.4)7 (6.2)5.460.019
Alkaline phosphatase >147 IU/L11 (30.5)55 (48.7)1.41110.235
Metabolic acidosis (pH <7.3)7 (19.4)18 (15.9)5.960.056
  • DBP, diastolic blood pressure; Hb, haemoglobin; JE, Japanese encephalitis; LOS, Liverpool Outcome Score; Na, sodium; SBP, systolic blood pressure.