Table 1

An overview of the characteristics of the selected articles

Author and yearTitleJournalCountryStudy designIntervention/strategy
Bentley et al 201766Interprofessional teamwork in comprehensive primary healthcare services: findings from a mixed methods studyJournal of interprofessional careAustraliaMixed methods study. Online survey, and interviews with managers and practitionersIntroduction of a comprehensive primary healthcare method
Berkowitz et al. 201665Case study: Johns Hopkins community health partnership: a model for transformationThe journal of delivery science and innovationUSACase studyThe Johns Hopkins Community Health Partnership. A community-based intervention. using multidisciplinary care.
Chan et al. 201043Finding common ground? Evaluating an intervention to improve teamwork among primary healthcare professionalsInternational journal of quality in healthcareAustraliaMixed methods study: Qualitative interviews, observations and a survey assessing multidisciplinary teamwork were used.A 6 month intervention (The Team-link intervention) consisting of an educational workshop and structured facilitation using specially designed materials, backed up by informal telephone support.
Coleman et al. 200844Interprofessional ambulatory primary care practice-based educational programmeJournal of interprofessional careUSAA longitudinal cohort study with a quantitative evaluation.STAR-project: an educational programme for teams of nurse practitioners, family medicine residents and social work students to work together at clinical sites in the delivery of longitudinal care in primary care ambulatory clinics.
Curran et al. 200745Evaluation of an interprofessional continuing professional development initiative in primary healthcareJournal of continuing education in the health professionsCanadaMixed methods study: An evaluation research design, prestudy to poststudy with quantitative and qualitative instruments.Introducing The Building a Better Tomorrow Initiative, which is a continuing professional development programme.
Goldman et al. 201046Interprofessional primary care protocols: a strategy to promote an evidence-based approach to teamwork and the delivery of careJournal of interprofessional careCanadaQualitative study.Implementation of an interprofessional protocol
Grace et al. 201447Flexible implementation and integration of new team members to support patient-centred careThe journal of delivery science and innovationUSAMixed methods: Interviews and a survey with primary care professionals.Introduction of interprofessional primary care protocols
Hilts et al. 201348Helping primary care teams emerge through a quality improvement programmeOxford academic: family practiceCanadaA qualitative exploratory case study approach.Introducing a quality improvement programme.
Josi et al. 202067Advanced practice nurses in primary care in Switzerland: an analysis of interprofessional collaborationBMC nursingSwitzer- landQualitative study with an ethnographic design.Integration of an advanced practice nurse in a primary care team.
Kim et al. 201949What makes team communication effective: a qualitative analysis of interprofessional primary care team members’ perspectivesJournal of interprofessional careUSAQualitative study. Grounded theory method of constant comparison.Standardised communication tools used with the implementation of the patient-centred medical home
Kotecha et al. 201568Influence of a quality improvement learning collaborative programme on team functioning in primary healthcareJournal of collaborative family healthcareCanadaA qualitative study using a phenomenological approach was conducted as part of a mixed-method evaluation.Quality Improvement Learning Collaborative Programme to support the development of interdisciplinary team function, and improve chronic disease management, disease prevention and access to care.
Légaré et al. 202050Validating a conceptual model for an inter-professional approach to shared decision making: a mixed methods studyJournal of evaluation in clinical practiceCanadaQualitative study. Thematic analysis of the transcripts and a descriptive analysis of the questionnaires were performed.An interprofessional shared decision-making model.
Lockhart et al. 201969Engaging primary care physicians in care coordination for patients with complex medical conditionsCanadian family physicianCanadaQualitative study. Care professionals were interviewed 14 to 19 months after the initiation of an intervention.Initiation of the Seamless Care Optimising the Patient Experience project.
MacNaughton et al. 201370Role construction and boundaries in interprofessional primary healthcare teams: a qualitative studyBMC health service researchCanadaA qualitative, comparative case study with observations was conducted.Introduction of a model to explore how roles are constructed within interprofessional healthcare teams. It focuses on elucidating the different types of role boundaries, the influences on role construction and the implications for professionals and patients.
Mahmood-Yousuf et al.51 2008Interprofessional relationships and communication in primary palliative care: impact of the gold standards frameworkThe British journal of general practiceUKQualitative interview case study.Adoption of an interprofessional collaboration framework to investigate the extent to which the framework influences interprofessional relationships and communication, and to compare general practitioners’ and nurses’ experiences.
Morgan et al. 201552Observation of interprofessional collaborative practice in primary care teams: an integrative literature reviewInternational journal of nursing studiesNew ZealandIntegrative literature reviewSeveral strategies to improve interprofessional collaboration in primary care teams
Morgan et al. 202076Collaborative care in primary care: the influence of practice interior architecture on informal face-to-face communication—an observational studyHealth environments research & design journalNew ZealandQualitative study with observationsChanging the architecture of primary care settings to explore the influence of primary care practice interior architecture on face-to-face on-the-fly communication for collaborative care.
Murphy et al53 2017Change in mental health collaborative care attitudes and practice in Australia
impact of participation in MHPN network meetings
Journal of integrated careAustraliaQuantitative study: an online survey.Introduction of the Mental Health Professionals Network. Investigating attitudinal and practice changes among health professionals after participation in MHPN’s (Mental Health Professionals Network) network meetings.
Pullon et al. 201671Observation of interprofessional collaboration in primary care practice: a multiple case studyJournal of interprofessional careNew- ZealandQualitative study, using a case study design with observations.Identifying existing strategies to maintain and improve interprofessional collaboration in primary care practices.
Reay et al. 201354Legitimising new practices in primary healthcareHealthcare management reviewCanadaA qualitative, longitudinal comparative case study.Developing effective interdisciplinary teams in primary healthcare.
Reeves et al. 201775Interprofessional collaboration to improve professional practice and healthcare outcomesCochrane reviewCanadaSystematic reviewNine interventions were analysed.
Robben et al. 201272Impact of interprofessional education on collaboration attitudes, skills, and behaviour among primary care professionalsJournal of continuing education in the health professionsNetherlandsMixed methods study: Before-after study, using the Interprofessional Attitudes Questionnaire, Attitudes Toward Healthcare Teams Scale, and Team Skills Scale. Additionally, semi-structured interviews were conductedIntroduction of an interprofessional education programme with interdisciplinary workshops.
Rodríguez et al. 201077The implementation evaluation of primary care groups of practice: a focus on organisational identityBMC family practiceCanadaQualitative study. An in-depth longitudinal case study was conducted over two and a half years.Implementation of primary care groups of practice, with a focus on the emergence of the organisational identity.
Rodriguez et al. 201555Availability of primary care team members can improve teamwork and readiness for changeHealthcare management reviewUSAQuantitative study with a survey, using path analysis.A four-stage developmental interprofessional collaborative relationship-building model: To assess primary care team structure (team size, team member availability, and access to interdisciplinary expertise), teamwork, and readiness for change.
Russell et al. 201856Contextual levers for team-based primary care: lessons from reform interventions in five jurisdictions in three countriesHealth service researchCanadaAn international consortium of researchers met via teleconference and regular face-to-face meetings using a Collaborative Reflexive Deliberative Approach to reanalyse and synthesise their published and unpublished data and their own work experience.Determining existing strategies and methods to improve interprofessional collaboration and integration in primary care.
Sargeant et al. 200857Effective interprofessional teams: ‘ontact is not enough’ to build a teamJournal of continuing education in the health professionsCanadaQualitative, grounded theory study.Introducing an interprofessional educational programme.
Tierney et al. 201958Interdisciplinary team working in the Irish primary healthcare system: analysis of ‘invisible’ bottom-up innovations using normalisation process theoryJournal of health policyIrelandMixed methods study: An online survey and an interview study.Bottom-up innovations using Normalisation Process Theory: (1)Design and delivery of educational events. in the community for preventive care and health promotion. (2)Development of integrated care plans for people with complex health needs. (3) Advocacy on behalf of patients.
Valaitis et al. 202073Examining interprofessional teams structures and processes in the implementation of a primary care intervention (health tapestry) for older adults using normalisation process theoryBMC family practiceCanadaQualitative study. Applying the NPT and a descriptive qualitative approach embedded in a mixed-methods, pragmatic RCT.Strengthening Quality (Health TAPESTRY) is a primary care intervention aimed at supporting older adults that involves trained volunteers, interprofessional teams, technology and system navigation.
van Dongen et al. 2018a59Suitability of a programme for improving interprofessional primary care team meetingsInternational journal of integrated careNetherlandsMixed methods study: a process evaluation using a mixed-methods approach including both qualitative and quantitative data.Introducing a multifaceted programme including a reflection framework, training activities and a toolbox.
van Dongen et al. 201660Interprofessional collaboration regarding patients’ care plans in primary care: a focus group study into influential factorsBMC family practiceNetherlandsQualitative study with an inductive content analysis.Improving interprofessional collaboration by using patients’ care plans.
van Dongen et al. 2018b74Development of a customisable programme for improving interprofessional team meetings: an action research approachInternational journal of integrated careNetherlandsQualitative study with an action research approach.A Customisable Programme for Improving Interprofessional Team Meetings
Wener 201661Collaborating in the context of co-location: a grounded theory studyBMC family practiceCanadaA qualitative research paradigm where the exploration is grounded in the providers’ experiences.A four-stage developmental interprofessional collaborative relationship-building model to guide healthcare providers and leaders as they integrate mental health services into primary care settings.
Wilcock et al. 200262The Dorset Seedcorn project: interprofessional learning and continuous quality improvement in primary careBritish journal of general practiceUnited KingdomMixed methods study. Participants kept reflective journals. The evaluation was undertaken using a mix of questionnaires and staff interviews.The Dorset Seedcorn Project: interprofessional learning and continuous quality improvement in primary care. Implementing the principles and methods of continuous quality improvement.
Young et al. 201763Shared care requires a shared vision: communities of clinical practice in a primary care settingBMC health service researchNew ZealandQualitative study with observations. A focused ethnography of nine ‘Communities of Clinical Practice.Introducing the ‘Community of Clinical Practice’ model. Forming a vision of care which is shared by patients and the primary care professionals involved in their care.