Table 5

Secondary and other outcomes investigated in substudies and in subgroups

OutcomeMeasurements and methodParticipantsTime points of data collection
BaselineAfter WLAfter WM
Month 0
Month 2
Month 6
Month 12
Substudies (include an intervention)
Brain reward activityBrain activity is measured by fMRI after consumption of a drink with sugar, S&SEs, waterSubstudy including a subgroup of adults in MaastrichtAAA
Postprandial responses (energy expenditure, substrate oxidation, blood biochemistry and appetite)Indirect calorimetry, blood sampling, appetite sensation based on VAS and ad libitum energy intake after consumption of a drink with S&SE or waterSubstudy including a subgroup of adults in CopenhagenAAA
Physical activity7-day measurements by accelerometerAdults in MaastrichtAAA
Gut-brain signalling markersAnalyses of GLP-1, CCK and ghrelin from fasting blood samplesAdults in Copenhagen and MaastrichtAAAA
Liver fat1H-MRSSubgroup of adults in MaastrichtAAA
Adipose tissue function and lipid metabolismAdipocyte morphology, ex vivo lipolysis, gene and protein expression analyses of adipose tissue samples (biopsy)Adults in MaastrichtAAA
Insulin sensitivity markersIndices for example, HOMA-IR, Matsuda index, Disposition index etc. calculated from a 7-point OGTTAdults in MaastrichtAAA
Gut microbiota16S rRNA illumine sequencing of faecal samplesChildren in MaastrichtCCC
Composition and functionality of the human gut microbiota in vitroMicrobial metabolites, for example, SCFA and 16S rRNA illumine sequencing of faecal samplesSubgroup of adults in MaastrichtA
  • 1H-MRS, Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy; A, adults; C, children; CCK, cholecystokinin; CID, clinical investigation day; fMRI, functional MRI; GLP-1, glucagon-like peptide 1; HOMA-IR, Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance; OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test; SCFA, short chain fatty acids; S&SEs, sweeteners and sweetness enhancers; VAS, visual analogue scales; WL, weight loss; WM, weight maintenance.