Table 3

Cohort summary clinical measurements from 2006 to 2020 by diabetes type

Type 1Type 2OtherTotal diabetes populationMissing
HbA1c measures (yearly)2.0 (1.0, 3.0)2.0 (1.0, 2.0)1.0 (<1, 2.0)2.0 (1.0, 2.0)1.2
HbA1c (mmol/mol)68 (58, 80)55 (47, 68)52 (43, 69)56 (48, 70)
HbA1c (%)8.37 (7.46, 9.52)7.18 (6.45, 8.37)6.95 (6.08, 8.46)7.27 (6.52, 8.51)11
Height measures (yearly)1.0 (<1, 2.0)<1 (<1, 1.0)<1 (<1, 1.0)<1 (<1, 1.0)2.2
Height (m)1.70 (1.62, 1.77)1.67 (1.60, 1.75)1.68 (1.60, 1.75)1.68 (1.60, 1.75)2.5
Weight measures (yearly)2.0 (1.0, 3.0)1.0 (1.0, 2.0)1.0 (<1, 2.0)1.0 (1.0, 2.0)1.3
Weight (kg)76 (64, 89)84 (71, 98)77 (64, 91)83 (70, 97)1.3
BMI measures (yearly)1.0 (1.0, 2.0)1.0 (<1, 2.0)1.0 (<1, 2.0)1.0 (<1, 2.0)6.3
BMI (kg/m2)26 (23, 30)30 (26, 34)27 (23, 32)29 (26, 34)30.2
Systolic BP measures (yearly)2.0 (1.0, 3.0)2.0 (1.0, 3.0)1.0 (<1, 3.0)2.0 (1.0, 3.0)2.4
Systolic BP (mm Hg)130 (120, 141)133 (123, 142)131 (120, 141)133 (123, 142)2.5
Diastolic BP measures (yearly)2.0 (1.0, 3.0)2.0 (1.0, 3.0)1.0 (<1, 3.0)2.0 (1.0, 3.0)
Diastolic BP (mm Hg)76 (69, 82)76 (70, 81)77 (70, 82)76 (70, 81)
HDL cholesterol measures (yearly)1.0 (<1, 1.0)1.0 (<1, 2.0)1.0 (<1, 1.0)1.0 (<1, 2.0)
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)1.4 (1.2, 1.8)1.1 (1.0, 1.4)1.2 (1.0, 1.5)1.2 (1.0, 1.4)
LDL cholesterol measures (yearly)<1 (<1, 1.0)<1 (<1, 1.0)<1 (<1, 1.0)<1 (<1, 1.0)
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)2.3 (1.8, 3.0)2.0 (1.5, 2.7)2.1 (1.6, 2.8)2.0 (1.5, 2.7)
Total cholesterol measures (yearly)1.0 (<1, 2.0)1.0 (1.0, 2.0)1.0 (<1, 2.0)1.0 (<1, 2.0)
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)4.5 (3.8,5.2)4.1 (3.4, 4.9)4.3 (3.6, 5.1)4.1 (3.5, 4.9)
eGFR measures (yearly)1.0 (<1, 2.0)2.0 (1.0, 3.0)1.0 (<1, 3.0)2.0 (1.0, 3.0)
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)97 (77, 114)75 (54, 91)85 (66, 100)77 (56, 93)
Albuminuric status
 Grading frequency (yearly)<1 (<1, 1.0)1.0 (<1, 1.0)<1 (<1, 1.0)1.0 (<1, 1.0)
 Normal19 272 (46.1)185 021 (44.4)5692 (39.1)209 985 (44.4)
 Micro7332 (17.5)98 402 (23.6)2381 (16.4)108 115 (22.9)
 Macro2342 (5.6)24 635 (5.9)567 (3.9)27 544 (5.8)
 Unknown12 868 (30.8)108 233 (26.0)5903 (40.6)127 004 (26.9)
Retinopathy
 Grading frequency (yearly)1.0 (<1, 1.0)1.0 (<1, 1.0)1.0 (<1, 1.0)1.0 (<1, 1.0)
 None14 659 (35.1)257 448 (61.8)8962 (61.6)281 069 (59.5)
 NPDR—mild/background10 828 (25.9)59 757 (14.4)1540 (10.6)72 125 (15.3)
 NPDR—moderate or maculopathy observable1141 (2.7)3512 (0.8)81 (0.6)4734 (1.0)
 Maculopathy referable484 (1.2)2334 (0.6)52 (0.4)2870 (0.6)
 NPDR—severe73 (0.2)398 (0.1)<10 (<1)*<482 (0.1)*
 PDR—proliferative9890 (23.7)38 835 (9.3)829 (5.7)49 554 (10.5)
 Not eligible1335 (3.2)25 (<1)35 (0.2)1395 (0.3)
 Unknown3404 (8.1)53 982 (13.0)3042 (20.9)60 428 (12.8)
Tobacco smoking status
 Current smoker8233 (19.7)66 863 (16.1)3300 (22.7)78 396 (16.6)
 Ex-smoker16 058 (38.4)218 246 (52.4)5866 (40.3)240 170 (50.8)
 Never smoked15 642 (37.4)129 463 (31.1)4538 (31.2)149 643 (31.7)
 Unknown1881 (4.5)1719 (0.4)839 (5.8)4439 (0.9)
  • Categorical values are shown in N (%) and continuous values are median IQR across the cohort in the full period. Number of measures are median IQR across the cohort in the full period. Missingness is the percentage of the cohort missing a measure in the full period. Categorical values are shown as unknown for missing non-routine measures. Normal albuminuria is an albumin/creatinine ratio <30, micro is 30–300 and macro is >300 mg/L. Please see the supplemental material for an explanation of retinopathy grading.

  • * Disclosure control applied for small number of individuals

  • BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; DKA, Diabetic Ketoacidosis; eGFR, Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate; GP, General Practitioner; HDL, High-density lipoprotein; LDL, Low-density lipoprotein; NPDR, Nonproliferative Diabetic Retinopathy; PDR, Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy.