Table 1

Key model inputs

ParameterBase case valueAlternative valuesSource notes
 Estimated deliveries (2020)1.503 millionDerived from crude birth rate and total population estimatein UN Population Prospects25
 Change in total deliveries0.01Derived from births in UN Population Prospects25
 Target emergency caesarean delivery rate15%10%
 Share of emergency caesarean delivery gap attributable only to lack of anaesthesia services30%10%14, 15
Training Programme Implementation Assumptions
 Training centresOne in first year, 2 thereafter
 Providers trained per session6
 Trainings per year per training centre12
 ESMK provider turnover rate0.07
 ESMK providers per facility3
ESM-ketamine programme unit costs
 Training costs$650TTS grant
 Travel and lodging$150MGH/USAID
 Kit (one per facility)$150TTS grant
Programme Coordination
 Programme director$48 000TTS grant
 Facilities per staff person60MGH/USAID
 QA/QC staff salary$16 400TTS grant
Overhead15%TTS grant
Life expectancy from age xMaleFemaleWHO Life Tables Kenya 201526
 <1 year64.468.9
 20–24 years53.3
 25–29 years48.8
 30–34 years44.4
Life expectancy per averted deathUndiscountedDiscounted
 Mothers (average of 3 age groups)48.826.2
 Newborns (average of male and female <1 year)66.729.5
Discount rate, annual3%
  • ESMK, Every Second Matters-Ketamine; QA/QC, quality assurance/quality control; TTS, Saving Lives at Birth Partners: Transition to Scale.