Table 2

Characteristics of the included studies

Author (year)NInclusion criteriaExclusion criteriaInterventionDurationOutcome measuresResult
Li et al (2021)21CG=61
SARS-CoV-2 infection, 18–75 years, available smartphone and moderate dyspnoeaResting heart rate over 100 /min, other cardiovascular coinfections or treatments, enrolled in other trials, cognitive impairment, uncooperative or unable to self-walkTelerehabilitation: breathing control and thoracic expansion exercises, aerobic exercise and LMS exercise; 40–60 min per session; 3–4 sessions per week
Control group: education
6 weeks6MWT, LMS, FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC, MVV, PEF, SF-12 PCS, SF-12 MCS and mMRC dyspnoeaPulmonary telerehabilitation better than no rehabilitation
Rodríguez-Blanco et al (2021)−122CG=22
18–75 years old, positive COVID-19 and acute phase and able to do home confinementChronic lung, kidney and neurological disorders, chronic mental and/or psychological and/or hypertension, and cardiovascular conditions, grade III osteoporosis, acute phase of rheumatological and disc abnormalitiesHome-based rehabilitation:
BG: 10 exercises based on the ACBT, daily for 14 days
Control group: no intervention
2 weeksVAFS, 6MWT, 30STST, MD12 and BSBG obtained significant improvements
Rodriguez-Blanco et al (2021)−223CG=18
18–75 years, positive SARS-CoV-2 and were in home confinementChronic lung, kidney and neurological disorders; patients with hypertension and cardiovascular conditions without medical treatment; patients with conditions that prevent movement; any interference in any other treatmentTelerehabilitation: non-specific toning exercises of resistance and strength, once a day for 7 days
Control group: no intervention
1 week6MWT, 30STST and BSTherapeutic exercise improves physical condition outcomes
Gonzalez-Gerez et al (2021)24CG=19
18–75 years and positive SARS-CoV-2Any chronic disease or condition that prevents doing exercise based on patients’ reportTelerehabilitation: based on breathing exercises
Control group: no intervention
1 week6MWT, MD12, 30STST and BSBreathing exercises improve physical condition, dyspnoea and perceived effort
  • ACBT, active cycle of breathing technique; BG, breathing exercise group; BS, Borg Scale; CG, control group; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC, forced vital capacity; IG, intervention group; LMS, lower limb muscle strength; MCS, Mental Component Score; MD12, Multidimensional Dyspnoea-12; mMRC, modified Medical Research Council; MVV, maximum voluntary ventilation; 6MWT, 6-minute walking test; PCS, Physical Component Score; PEF, peak expiratory flow; SF-12, Short Form-12; 30STST, 30-second sit-to-stand test; VAFS, Visual Analogue Fatigue Scale.