Table 5

Outcome measures model estimates

Models were created by using the outcome variable as a dependent variable, and using the variables listed under the ‘model variables’ as covariates. ‘Activity’ quantifies segments of 30 min of daily activity, ‘time’ determines the no of days since each patient started recording their activity, and ‘dominant arm’ was used to determine whether or not the patient suffered a stroke on their dominant arm.
OutcomeModel adjusted R2Model fit p valueModel variablesEstimatesEstimate p value
Left-Right ratio improvement* (Ref. category: No improvement)0.169†<0.001Activity
Time
Dominant arm (Ref. category: No)
1.005‡
0.995‡
6.684‡
<0.001
0.116
<0.001
PAM0.0120.002Activity
Time
−0.653
−0.022
0.002
0.290
VAS0.135<0.001Activity
Time
−0.056
0.29
0.025
0.000
MAL—how much0.452<0.001Activity
Time
0.304
0.012
<0.001
<0.001
MAL—how well0.433<0.001Activity
Time
0.324
0.001
<0.001
<0.001
mRS0.267<0.001Activity
Time
−0.161
−0.007
<0.001
<0.001
MoCA0.0020.158Activity
Time
0.002
0.000
0.272
0.160
EQ-5D-5L index<0.0010.161Activity
Time
0.020
0.002
<0.001
<0.001
EQ-5D-5L VAS0.226<0.001Activity
Time
1.252
0.241
<0.001
<0.001
  • *Left-right ratio improvement was measured using a logistic regression model, as opposed to other variables which were modelled using a linear model.

  • †Pseudo R2 (McFadden).

  • ‡Estimated for the left-right ratio improvement are show as ORs.

  • EQ-5D-5L, EuroQol-5 Dimensions-5 Level; MAL, Motor Activity Log; MoCA, Montreal Cognitive Assessment; mRS, modified Rankin Scale; PAM, Patient Activation Measure; VAS, Visual Analogue Scale.