Table 2

Description of health behaviour change interventions and outcomes of included randomised controlled trials (n=9), ordered alphabetically by first author

AuthorsActivity descriptionPrimary outcomesSecondary outcomesEffectivenessQuality
Alkhawaldeh et al (2020)192-hour sessions on stress, skills in stress management techniques, cognitive change and behaviours to cope with stress and avoid negative outcomes from stress.
Under pinned by Folkman, Lazarus, Dunkel Schetter De Longis and Gruen’s cognitive theory of stress and coping.
Occupational stress via Nurses Stress Scale.
Coping strategies via Brief-COPE Scale.
Not applicableSignificant improvement among intervention group compared with control group for total occupational stress scores, total coping strategies scale scores.Strong
Axisa et al (2019)134-hour workshop on well-being, health and stress management techniques.Alcohol use via AUDIT.
Depression, anxiety and stress via DASS-21.
Secondary traumatic stress and compassion satisfaction via ProQOL.
Not applicableNo significant difference was found between intervention and control.Weak
Moosavi et al (2017)141-hour CBT session for coping mechanisms, benefit of PA, time management for PA, PA strategies.
1 hour practical exercise training session. Isometric exercise CD to be used at home for 30 min/day.
Physical activity via MET min/week questionnaire.Stages of change (SoC).
Self-Efficacy Scale.
Decisional Balance Questionnaire
Process of change.
Significant improvement among intervention group compared with control group for: MET scores, SOC, POC, Self-efficacy, perceived benefits of PA.Weak
Mujika et al (2014)151 hour session/week of patient centred MI sessions with a therapist to: establish a desire to quit, set a quitting date, maintain abstinence, overcome withdrawal symptoms and adopt a new lifestyle without tobacco.Smoking cessation verified biochemically via urine cotinine and expired carbon monoxide.Mean number of cigarettes smoked via self-reporting. Nicotine dependence via FTND. SoC via SOCQ. Self-efficacy via general self-efficacy test. Depression via PHQ-9.Significant improvement among intervention group compared with control group for smoking cessation, mean no. of cigarettes per day, SOC, depression scores.Moderate
Saadat et al (2012)171.5 hour/week CBT based sessions with four components on coping with work and family stress.Job/family stress via 48 item (RQS)
Coping strategies via self-reporting.
Social support via an adaption of PSS.
Anxiety via STAI.
Depression via CESD.
Physical symptoms via CHIPS.
Alcohol and tobacco use via NSDUH.
Not applicableSignificant improvement among intervention group compared with control group 2 for anxiety score, perceived stress as a parent, coping: problem-solving scores.
Significant improvement among intervention compared with both control groups for social support at work.
Sampson et al (2019)1645 min/week
MINDBODYSTRONG sessions on: caring for the mind, caring for the bodyand skills building.
CBT concepts to establish weekly goals and complete skills-building activities weekly.
Perceived stress via PSS.
Anxiety via GAD-7.
Depressive symptoms via the 9-item Personal Health Questionnaire.
Healthy lifestyle beliefs and healthy lifestyle behaviours via adaption of beliefs scales by Melnyk and colleagues.
Job satisfaction via JSS.
Not applicableSignificant improvement among intervention group compared with control group for perceived stress, anxiety scores, depressive symptoms scores, healthy lifestyle behaviours scores.Strong
Suni et al (2018)181 hour/ 2× per week. First 8 weeks exercise was under instruction, remaining 16 weeks was 1 instructed session 1 at home.
A modified Pilates-type exercise programme, started with easier exercises, and was progressive in terms of demands for coordination, balance and muscular strength over three stages.
An additional 10×45 min counselling sessions were given exercise+counselling arm. CBT was used for the framework and PBL used to implement counselling sessions.
Intensity of lower back pain measured with the Visual Analogue Scale (0–100 mm).Bodily pain interfering with work (via GLMM).
FABs related to work/PA (via GLMM).
Cost-effectiveness ratio calculated from difference in mean total costs and mean effect (no. sick days or QALYs) between arms.
Significant improvement for only the combined (exercise+counselling) arm in intensity of LBP, pain interfering with work, FABs related to work.
Significant improvement for only the exercise-arm in FABs related to PA.
Significant improvement for only the combined (exercise+counselling) arm in cost effectiveness.
Thorndike et al (2012)12Intervention via website—PA and nutrition goals set weekly (monitored by nutritionist). Website provided resources and journaling option.
Every 3 months option for face-to-face nutrition and/or PT session and a lunch-time group seminar.
Weight loss, % weight loss.
PA via estimate of intensity level and minutes spent in PA per week during previous 3 months.
Diet via FFQ.
BMI, waist circumference, BP, cholesterol, fasting serum glucose.
No significant difference was found between intervention and control.Moderate
Thorndike et al (2014)11All participants received ‘Be Fit’ workplace diet and PA intervention. Intervention group had access to PA monitor and website for tracking steps.
Be Fit programme included 1 /week catered lunch. Access to onsite fitness centre and 1 hour PT session/week and two nutritionist sessions/week.
PA measured in steps via activity monitor (Fitbit).Compliance with wearing the monitor.No significant difference was found between intervention and control.Moderate
  • AUDIT, Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test; BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; CBT, cognitive behavioural theory; CD, Compact Disc; CESD, The Center of Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; CHIPS, Cohen-Hoberman Inventory of Physical Symptoms; DASS-21, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 item; FAB, fear avoidance behaviour ; FFQ, Food Frequency Questionnaire; FTND, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence; GAD-7, Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale; GLMM, generalised linear mixed model; JSS, Job Satisfaction Scale; LBP, Lower Back Pain; MET, Metabolic Equivalent of Task Scale; MI, motivational interviewing; NSDUH, National Survey on Drug Use and Health; PA, physical activity; PBL, problem-based learning; PHQ-9, The Patient Health Questionnaire – 9 items; POC, process of change; ProQOL, Professional Quality of Life Scale; PSS, Perceived Stress Scale; PT, personal trainer; QALY, quality-adjusted life-year; RQS, Role Quality Scale; SOCQ, Stage of Change Questionnaire; STAI, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.