Table 2

Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) questionnaire

AreaVariableQuestionMinimum valueMaximum valueScoringSource
Suicidality (5 questions)Passive SIMy wish to live isNo wish to dieMaximum wish to die1–7SSPQ36
My wish to live isNo wish to liveMaximum wish to live1–7
Do you have thoughts that you would be better off dead or of hurting yourself in some way?Not at allNearly every day0–3PHQ-937
Active SIHow intense is your desire to kill yourself right now?Absent/no desireExtremely intense0–5Based on prior EMA studies15 20
How able are you to keep yourself safe right now?I definitely can keep myself safeI definitely cannot keep myself safe1–5
Non-suicidal self-injury (2 questions)Non-suicidal self-injuryAt any point in the last 24 hours, did you harm yourself on purpose without the intention to die?YesNoY/NBased on prior EMA studies17
Since the last prompt, have you felt an urge or wanted to harm or injure yourself on purpose, without wanting to die?Not at allExtremely1–5Based on prior EMA studies21
Affect (9 questions)Psychological painI feel psychological painNo painMaximum pain1–7SSPQ36
StressI feel stressed out today (with pressure, overwhelmed)No stressMaximum stress1–7
RestlessnessI feel restless (agitated), with the need to keep movingNo restlessnessMaximum restlessness1–7
HopelessnessI feel full of hopeNo hopeMaximum hope1–7
Anger towards selfI feel hatred or anger towards myselfNo hatredMaximum hatred1–7
Anger towards othersI feel hatred or anger towards othersNo hatredMaximum hatred1–7
AnxietyAt this moment I feel nervousVery slightly or not at allExtremely1–5PANA38
DepressionAt this moment I feel sadVery slightly or not at allExtremely1–5
HappinessAt this moment I feel happyVery slightly or not at allExtremely1–5
Interpersonal experiences (11 questions)Thwarted belongingnessI wish there was a trusted person with whom I can talk about all my personal issuesNot at allAbsolutely1–7SSPQ36
Thwarted belongingnessI feel like an outsiderNot at allAbsolutely1–7
Lack of recognitionI wish I received more recognition and love from othersNot at allAbsolutely1–7
Lack of independenceI have the impression that important people around me want to decide for me what I should think and doNot at allAbsolutely1–7
CriticismSince the last prompt have you felt insulted or criticised?Not at allExtremely1–5Based on prior EMA studies21
Thwarted belongingnessSince the last prompt have you felt rejected, abandoned, excluded, or left out?Not at allExtremely1–5
Perceived burdensomenessI believe I’m contributing to the well-being of my family/friendsNot at allAbsolutely1–7SSPQ36
Perceived burdensomenessI believe I’m contributing to the well-being of the people around meNot at allAbsolutely1–7
Thwarted belongingnessI feel disconnected from other peopleNot at allAbsolutely1–7
Perceived burdensomenessI feel like a burden to othersNot at all true for meVery true for me1–7INQ39
Perceived burdensomenessI feel uselessNot at all true for meVery true for me1–7
Sleep (4 questions)Sleep maintenanceLast night I had trouble staying asleepNoneVery severe0–4SSPQ36
Sleep-derived quality of lifeOthers think that sleep problems affect my quality of lifeNot at allAbsolutely1–7
Sleep dissatisfactionToday I am satisfied with my sleepVery unsatisfiedVery satisfied1–7
Sleep-derived interference with daily activityMy sleep problems are interfering with my daily activityNot at allVery much0–4
Eating (3 questions)AppetiteIn the last few days, I have been hungry.NeverAll the time0–4SSPQ36
TasteIn the last days when I eat, the food tastes.Very badVery good0–4
Number of mealsIn the last few days, I usually do.Less than one meal a dayMore than three meals a day0–4
  • INQ, Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire; PANA, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule; PHQ-9, Patient Health Questionnaire-9; SI, suicidal ideation; SSPQ, Salzburg Suicide Process Questionnaire.