Table 4

Change in knowledge between baseline and follow-up

BaselineFollow-upχ2P valueDirection of change*
n (%)
n (%)
n (%)
n (%)
Malaria (mosquito) causes cervical cancer (false)101 (87.8)14 (12.2)109 (94.8)6 (5.2)3.560.06Embedded Image
Pain during urination can be a sign of cervical cancer (false)72 (62.6)43 (37.4)39 (33.9)76 (66.1)16.3<0.001Embedded Image
Q3: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer disease among Tanzanian women (true)106 (92.2)9 (7.8)104 (90.4)11 (9.6)0.20.64Embedded Image
Q4: You can get cervical cancer from deep kissing (false)101 (87.8)14 (12.2)52 (45.2)63 (54.8)38.1<0.001Embedded Image
Q5: It is possible to prevent cervical cancer (true)64 (55.6)51 (44.3)95 (82.6)20 (17.4)19.6<0.001Embedded Image
Q6: Vaginal bleeding is the most common sign of cervical cancer (true)68 (59.1)47 (40.9)69 (60.0)46 (40.0)0.00.89Embedded Image
Q7: Too much sun can lead to cervical cancer (false)91 (79.1)24 (20.9)54 (47.0)61 (53.0)22.4<0.001Embedded Image
Q8: A cervical infection can lead to cervical cancer (true)83 (72.2)32 (27.8)105 (91.3)10 (8.7)12.7<0.001Embedded Image
Q9: HIV-positive women have higher risk of developing cervical cancer (true)93 (80.9)22 (19.1)97 (84.4)18 (15.6)0.50.47Embedded Image
Q10: Cervical cancer is often found at an early stage due to obvious symptoms (false)32 (27.8)83 (72.2)12 (10.4)103 (89.6)9.10.00Embedded Image
Q12: Screening can detect cervical infections, so they do not develop into cancer (true)105 (91.3)10 (8.7)105 (9.3)10 (8.7)0.01.00Embedded Image
Q13: Cervical cancer is the main cause of cancer-related death among Tanzanian women (true)107 (93.0)8 (7.0)105 (91.3)10 (8.7)0.30.62Embedded Image
Q14: Cervical cancer is most common for women in the 20’s (false)36 (31.3)79 (68.7)14 (12.2)101 (87.8)11.0<0.001Embedded Image
Q15: Itchiness in the vaginal area can be a sign of cervical cancer (false)66 (57.4)49 (42.6)29 (25.2)86 (74.8)21.7<0.001Embedded Image
Q16: A virus called ‘human papillomavirus’ (HPV) causes cervical cancer.
65 (56.5)50 (43.5)98 (85.2)17 (14.8)23.2<0.001Embedded Image
  • *Green=significantly more women answered item correct; yellow=no difference; red=significantly more women answered item incorrect.