Table 2

Mixed-effect analysis of predictors of maternal and newborn skin-to-skin contact among women in Papua New Guinea

VariablesModel OModel I aOR (95% CI)Model II aOR (95% CI)Model III aOR (95% CI)
Fixed effect results
Birth order
 First1.001.00
 Second0.87 (0.67 to 1.12)0.86 (0.67 to 1.12)
 Third1.12 (0.85 to 1.48)1.11 (0.85 to 1.46)
 Fourth1.24 (0.91 to 1.69)1.22 (0.90 to 1.67)
 Fifth or more1.03 (0.74 to 1.42)1.01 (0.73 to 1.39)
Birth weight
 Normal (≥2.5 kg)1.001.00
 Low birth weight (<2.5 kg)1.24 (0.78 to 1.97)1.23 (0.77 to 1.96)
Maternal educational level
 No education1.001.00
 Primary1.42* (1.08 to 1.87)1.38* (1.03 to 1.82)
 Secondary or higher1.43 (0.96 to 2.14)1.36 (0.89 to 2.07)
Current working status
 No1.001.00
 Yes1.01 (0.82 to 1.26)1.00 (0.81 to 1.24)
Number of antenatal care visits
 Below four visits1.001.00
 Four or more visits1.30* (1.03 to 1.63)1.27* (1.01 to 1.61)
Place of delivery
 Home1.001.00
 Health facility6.89*** (5.32 to 8.93)6.66*** (5.11 to 8.68)
 Other0.96 (0.47 to 1.97)0.94 (0.46 to 1.93)
Exposed to reading newspaper/magazine
 No1.001.00
 Yes0.86 (0.63 to 1.17)0.84 (0.62 to 1.15)
Exposed to listening to radio
 No1.001.00
 Yes1.21 (0.91 to 1.61)1.19 (0.90 to 1.59)
Exposed to watching television
 No1.001.00
 Yes1.13 (0.80 to 1.60)1.10 (0.77 to 1.57)
Health insurance coverage
 No1.001.00
 Yes0.89 (0.56 to 1.41)0.84 (0.52 to 1.36)
Wealth index
 Poorest1.001.00
 Poorer1.43* (1.01 to 2.03)1.40 (0.99 to 1.99)
 Middle1.20 (0.88 to 1.65)1.14 (0.83 to 1.57)
 Richer1.17 (0.84 to 1.63)1.02 (0.72 to 1.45)
 Richest1.53* (1.06 to 2.22)1.22 (0.81 to 1.84)
Place of residence
 Urban1.001.00
 Rural0.47*** (0.36 to 0.63)0.87 (0.61 to 1.25)
Region
 Southern region1.001.00
 Highlands region0.88 (0.66 to 1.14)0.82 (0.62 to 1.10)
 Momase region0.64** (0.47 to 0.89)0.91 (0.66 to 1.25)
 Islands region0.84 (0.63 to 1.14)0.76 (0.56 to 1.04)
Community literacy level
 Low1.001.00
 Medium1.95*** (1.49 to 2.56)1.19 (0.90 to 1.58)
 High2.35*** (1.70 to 3.25)1.31 (0.92 to 1.87)
Community socioeconomic status
 Low1.001.00
 Medium1.23 (0.86 to1.76)1.04 (0.73 to 1.48)
 High2.21*** (1.73 to 2.84)1.45** (1.11 to 1.90)
Random effect model
 PSU variance (95% CI)1.607 (1.310 to 1.971)0.961 (0.752 to 1.227)1.040 (0.823 to 1.313)0.942 (0.725 to 1.205)
 ICC0.3280.2260.2400.223
 Wald χ2Reference390.73 (<0.001)202.60 (<0.001)482.58 (<0.001)
Model fitness
 Log-likelihood−3754.3735−3328.6937−3663.4694−3319.7777
 AIC7512.7476699.3877346.9396697.555
 N6044604460446044
 Number of clusters757757757757
  • 1.00=reference category. p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001.

  • AIC, Akaike Information Criterion; aOR, adjusted ORs; ICC, intraclass correlation; PSU, primary sampling unit.