Table 1

Multilevel variables and data sources

Data sourcesVariables
Statewide Immunisation Online NetworkVaccination status: dates and location of vaccination, vaccine products (Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, Janssen/J&J), vaccine doses
SC DHEC Enhanced HIV/AIDS Reporting SystemHIV-related information: date of HIV diagnosis, AIDS stage, CD4 counts, viral load, HIV transmission mode
Healthcare access and utilisation: geospatial distance to healthcare facility, retention in care
SC Revenue and Fiscal Affairs Office
  • Sociodemographics: age, gender, race, ethnicity, residential status (urban/rural)

  • Underlying medical conditions: using ICD codes to define a wide range of comorbidities

South Carolina COVID-19 CohortCOVID-19 diagnosis information from case report form:
  • Clinical course: date of COVID-19 diagnosis, diagnosis status (confirmed or probable cases), date of symptom onset, pheumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, mechanical ventilation/intubation, ECMO, hospitalisation, intensive care unit and death information

  • Symptoms: fever, chill, myalgia, olfactory and taste disorder, shortness of breath, nausea or vomiting

  • Medical history/risk behaviours: diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, cardiovascular disease, chronic renal disease, current/former smoker, substance abuse/misuse

  • Case demographics: age, sex, state/county of residence, sex, ethnicity, race.

  • Aggregated county-level local COVID-19 incidence

  • DHEC, Department of Health and Environmental Control; ECMO, Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation; ICD, International Classification Diseases; SC, South Carolina.