Table 1

TOMs relating to TMD in 172 included papers

Core areaTOM domainTOM termTOM instrument (measurement)
VariablesArticlesTOMsVariablesArticlesTOMsVariablesArticlesOutcomesVariablesArticlesTOMs
Physiological/ clinicalPain161229Pain intensity161229General103115VAS121148
Resting1516NRS2129
Functioning3844Verbal Rating Scale (VRS)34
Tenderness4045Characteristic Pain Intensity (CPI)44
Others88Graded pain scale44
Pain Index (intensity×frequency)34
von Korff pain grade11
Others2125
Not described1011
Pain quality22McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ)22
Psychiatric outcomes1415Depression/anxiety1414Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI)22
Depressive and non-specific physical symptoms (NSPS)22
Geriatric depression scale (GDS)22
Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)11
Other77
Distress11Brief Symptoms Inventory-18 (BSI-18)11
Life impactPhysical functioning126233MMO91102Without pain1919
With pain88
Passive1313
Limitation77
Not described5555
Jaw movement2639Mandibular movement range2326
Mandibular movement velocity55
Not described78
Joint sound/clicking1617Subjective functional impairment, auscultation00
jaw and related function3242Temporomandibular (TM) Index11
Dysfunction Index22
Jaw Functional Limitation Scale (JFLS)55
Subjective functional impairment22
Mandibular function impairment questionnaire44
Electromyography (EMG)56
Cervical range of motion (ROM)22
Multidimensional Pain Inventory11
Other1515
Not described34
Oral health-related QOL1011Oral health impact profile (OHIP)-1444
Other33
Not described34
Others2020
Emotional functioning1213Impact of TMD66Bothersomeness of TMD symptoms11
% of TMD-related headache00
Other88
Not described11
Impact of headache attributed to TMD67Headache attributed to TMD33
Global QOL1723QOL1519WHOQOL-BREF33
Impediments to the activities of daily life44
Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS)22
Other1212
Sleep quality44Not described22
Delivery of care44Overall improvement11Overall improvement,11
Global reporting of change (GRC)11
Satisfaction/patient preference22Participant satisfaction22
other11
Resource useNeed for further intervention44Rescue medication33Medication dose/week, self-medication frequency22
Not described11Not described22
Adverse eventsAdverse events/effects77Adverse events77Adverse events77
  • MMO, maximal mouth opening; NRS, Numerical Rating Scale; QOL, quality of life; TMD, temporomandibular disorder; TOM, therapy outcomes measure; VAS, Visual Analogue Scale.