Table 1

The baseline characteristics of the enrolled patients

ItemsTotal N=2728Male n=1520Female n=1208P value
Age (year)72.19±7.7571.65±7.7372.87±7.74<0.001
Age stratification (year)0.003
60–691150 (42.16%)674 (44.34%)476 (39.40%)
70–791033 (37.86%)574 (37.76%)459 (38.00%)
≥80545 (19.98%)272 (17.89%)273 (22.60%)
BMI (kg/m2)23.47±3.5023.60±3.2323.30±3.80<0.001
Current smoke852 (31.23%)795 (52.44%)57 (4.73%)<0.001
hypertension1581 (57.95%)842 (55.43%)739 (61.23%)0.002
CAD913 (33.47%)534 (35.13%)379 (31.37%)0.039
Diabetes511 (18.73%)275 (18.12%)236 (19.59%)0.329
Hyperlipidaemia227 (8.32%)128 (8.52%)99 (8.28%)0.397
AF832 (30.57%)413 (27.26%)419 (34.71%)<0.001
Cardiomyopathy119 (4.36%)81 (5.34%)38 (3.17%)0.006
Stroke322 (11. 80%)186 (12.24%)136 (11.27%)0.436
Aortic disease202 (7.44%)120 (7.93%)82 (6.83%)0.281
Renal insufficiency205 (7.52%)125 (8.22%)80 (6.64%)0.132
COPD173 (6.35%)127 (8.36%)46 (3.81%)<0.001
Previous intervention664 (24.34%)382 (25.13%)282 (23.34%)0.279
PCI291 (10.67%)177 (11.64%)114 (9.44%)0.063
CABG55 (2.02%)41 (2.70%)14 (1.16%)0.004
Pacemaker162 (5.94%)85 (5.59%)77 (6.37%)0.390
 Catheter ablation54 (1.98%)29 (1.91%)25 (2.07%)0.763
Peripheral vascular stent implantation27 (0.99%)17 (1.12%)10 (0.83%)0.446
Others190 (6.96%)105 (6.91%)85 (7.04%)0.895
Repeated hospitalisation due to HVD within 3 months271 (9.99%)168 (11.12%)103 (8.57%)0.027
Symptom
Angina pectoris781 (33.08%)455 (34.55%)326 (31.23%)0.088
Palpitation817 (34.49%)412 (31.31%)405 (38.46%)<0.001
Syncope116 (4.99%)60 (4.64%)56 (5.42%)0.392
Cardiac insufficiency1841 (76.87%)1045 (77.93%)796 (75.52%)0.381
Systolic pressure (mm Hg)132.42±21.00131.66±21.21133.41±20.650.031
Diastolic pressure (mm Hg)74.20±13.6573.66±13.9474.85±13.240.023
HR (beats/min)78.39±17.7777.39±16.3479.64±19.340.001
NYHA Class0.505
Class I65 (3.51%)42 (4.03%)23 (2.85%)
Class II564 (30.49%)323 (30.97%)241 (29.86%)
Class III898 (48.54%)499 (47.84%)399 (49.44%)
Class IV323 (17.46%)179 (17.16%)144 (17.84%)
Disease stage0.042
Stage A13 (0.48%)5 (0.33%)8 (0.68%)
Stage B1091 (40.68%)574 (38.34%)517 (43.63%)
Stage C1318 (11.86%)185 (12.36%)133 (11.22%)
Stage C216 (0.60%)8 (0.53%)8 (0.68%)
Stage D1243 (46.35%)725 (48.43%)518 (43.71%)
LVDD (mm)54.12±20.6156.42±18.9651.20±22.20<0.001
LVEF (%)55.16±12.5653.86±13.0056.82±11.78<0.001
PAH1046 (38.34%)553 (36.38%)493 (40.81%)0.018
NT-pro-BNP (pg/mL)3983.68±6309.314041.95±6307.033912.56±6316.930.717
  • AF, atrial fibrillation/ atrial flutter; BMI, body mass index; CABG, coronary artery bypass grafting; CAD, coronary heart disease; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; HR, heart rate; LVDD, left ventricular end-diastolic dimension; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; NT-pro-BNP, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide; NYHA, New York Heart Association; PAH, pulmonary arterial hypertension; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention.