Table 1

Reporting of ethnicity and/or race, and socioeconomic status indicators in research articles

Report participant level characteristicsNAdditional notes
Report ethnicity and/or race35/100 report
65 not report
Range per journal: JAMA 9/10, with clear guidance that this information is expected.
Noted in limitations62 of the 65 do not state this as a limitation
3 do highlight this as a limitation.
Some studies identify race and ethnicity as being relevant to the research focus, yet did not provide relevant data on their study participants or highlight this a limitation of their study, for example,
  • in the case of DNA-based mutation testing, poor sensitivity in detecting mutations in infants from ethnic and racial minority groups (DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.abd8109)

  • peripheral oxygen saturation can substantially differ from the Sao2 under certain conditions and may be less accurate in Black patients than in White patients (DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2032510)

Report socioeconomic status indicator13/100 report at a measure of SES (six direct measure, for example, Index of Multiple Deprivation, Poverty income ratio; seven measures from which SES can be inferred, for example, educational attainment, job role)
87/100 did not report any indication of SES
Noted in limitations6/87 identified this as a limitation
Age reported99/100
Sex or gender reported97/100
  • Percentages not given as most results have 100 as the denominator.

  • SES, socioeconomic study.