Table 2

Imaging parameters, presented as the adjusted mean difference of patients using systemic glucocorticoids (GC) (n=222) or inhaled GC (n=557) compared with controls (n=24 106)

ANOVASystemic GC versus controlsInhaled GC versus controls
F valueP valuePFDRAMD*95% CIP valueAMD*95% CIP value
Volumetric measures
Global volumes (in mm3)
 Total brain volume19.72.8e-91.0e-8−3688−10627 to 32520.393374−1012 to 77600.16
 Grey matter volume23.75.4e-116.5e-10−1968−5904 to 19680.431012−1476 to 35000.57
 White matter volume6.71.2e-32.0e-3−1720−6273 to 28330.612362−516 to 52400.13
 Peripheral cortex21.16.9e-106.2e-9−3303−6843 to 2370.0721033−1205 to 32700.49
 CSF volume10.14.2e-59.5e-51215−824 to 32540.3278−1211 to 13670.98
Subcortical volumes (in mm3)
 Accumbens12.06.0e-61.7e-5−13.1−26.7 to 0.50.062−6.5−15.1 to 2.10.17
 Caudate6.71.3e-32.0e-377.824.5 to 131.10.0023−2.7−36.4 to 30.90.97
 Pallidum7.74.5e-47.8e-40.8−29.9 to 31.41.00−18.0−37.3 to 1.40.074
 Putamen10.91.8e-54.6e-5−31.3−98.2 to 35.60.48−27.9−70.2 to 14.40.25
 Thalamus8.22.7e-44.9e-43.6−74.0 to 81.10.99−6.4−55.4 to 42.60.93
Regional grey matter volumes (in mm3)
 Amygdala23.85.0e-116.5e-10−4.0−31.9 to 23.80.91−23.9−41.5 to −6.25.2e-3
 Caudate13.02.3e-67.5e-6178.782.2 to 275.01.0e-441.2−19.8 to 102.00.24
 Cerebellum10.82.0e-54.8e-525.1−18.4 to 68.50.34−12.2−39.7 to 15.30.51
 Insular cortex8.52.0e-43.9e-4−36.2−108.4 to 36.00.435.0−40.6 to 50.70.95
 Precuneal cortex5.54.3e-35.6e-3−21.5−179.0 to 136.30.92−7.4−107.0 to 92.40.97
DTI measures
Fractional anisotropy
 Global19.24.6e-92.8e-8−0.0037−0.0064 to −0.00104.2e-3−0.0023−0.0040 to −5.7e-45.7e-3
 Body of corpus callosum10.04.7e-51.0e-4−0.0043−0.0084 to −1.2e-40.043−0.0023−0.0049 to 3.0e-40.092
 Genu of corpus callosum16.85.4e-82.1e-7−0.0064−0.011 to −0.00175.0e-3−0.0019−0.0049 to 0.00110.27
 Splenium of corpus callosum5.44.4e-35.6e-3−0.0021−0.0053 to 0.00120.27−0.0032−0.0052 to −0.00121.0e-3
 Cingulum cingulate6.12.4e-33.4e-3−0.0017−0.0062 to 0.00280.61−0.0028−0.0057 to 8.9e-60.051
 Cingulum hippocampus6.41.7e-32.5e-36.5e-5−0.0046 to 0.00481.00−3.4e-3−0.0063 to −3.8e-40.024
Mean diffusivity
 Global25.95.8e-122.1e-107.2e-63.2e-6 to 1.1e-51.0e-42.7e-61.7e-7 to 5.2e-60.034
 Body of corpus callosum15.52.0e-77.0e-76.9e-61.7e-6 to 1.2e-56.0e-34.8e-61.6e-6 to 8.1e-62.0e-3
 Genu of corpus callosum18.01.6e-87.0e-88.4e-62.2e-6 to 1.5e-54.9e-34.1e-61.7e-7 to 8.0e-60.039
 Splenium of corpus callosum9.76.2e-51.2e-44.4e-6−3.8e-8 to 8.9e-60.0505.3e-62.4e-6 to 8.1e-61.0e-4
 Cingulum cingulate5.44.3e-35.6e-32.9e-6−8.5e-7 to 6.6e-60.162.8e-64.7e-7 to 5.2e-60.015
 Cingulum hippocampus18.59.1e-94.7e-85.0e-64.2e-7 to 9.5e-60.0295.6e-62.8e-6 to 8.5e-6<1.03–4
 Uncinate fasciculus12.15.4e-61.6e-56.4e-62.2e-6 to 1.1e-51.4e-32.2e-6−4.4e-7 to 4.9e-60.12
  • P values in bold are statistically significant (p<0.05).

  • *Adjusted mean difference, calculated using linear models, adjusted for age, sex, education, X position, Y position and Z position of the head in the scanner, head size, assessment centre and year of imaging acquisition; significance was determined using a post hoc Dunnett’s test.

  • AMD, adjusted mean difference; ANOVA, analysis of variance; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; DTI, diffusion tensor imaging; PFDR, Benjamini-Hochberg false discovery rate corrected p values.