Table 3

Cognitive outcome measures of patients using systemic glucocorticoids (GC) (n=222) or inhaled GC (n=557) compared with controls

ANOVASystemic GC versus controlsInhaled GC versus controlsParticipants with available data, n (%)
F valueP valuePFDRAMD*95% CIP valueAMD*95% CIP valueSystemic GCInhaled GCControls
Trail making A5.60.00367.3e-3−0.11−0.28 to 0.060.25−0.031−0.15 to 0.090.78149 (67)296 (53)16 419 (68)
Trail making B6.10.00236.8e-3−0.12−0.30 to 0.050.19−0.0077−0.13 to 0.110.98139 (63)291 (52)16 071 (67)
Symbol substitution10.33.5e-52.1e-4−0.17−0.34 to −0.010.04−0.035−0.15 to 0.080.72146 (66)298 (54)16 442 (68)
  • Trail making A, and trail making B were log transformed before generation of Z scores because they were non-normally distributed. Variables were transformed such that higher values indicate a better performance. Significance was determined using a post hoc Dunnett’s test. P values in bold are statistically significant (p<0.05).

  • *Adjusted mean difference between patients and controls, expressed in Z scores. Calculated using linear models, adjusting for age, sex and education.

  • AMD, adjusted mean difference; ANOVA, analysis of variance; PFDR, Benjamini-Hochberg false discovery rate corrected p values.