ANOVA | Systemic GC versus controls | Inhaled GC versus controls | Participants with available data, n (%) | |||||||||

F value | P value | P_{FDR} | AMD* | 95% CI | P value | AMD* | 95% CI | P value | Systemic GC | Inhaled GC | Controls | |

Trail making A | 5.6 | 0.0036 | 7.3e-3 | −0.11 | −0.28 to 0.06 | 0.25 | −0.031 | −0.15 to 0.09 | 0.78 | 149 (67) | 296 (53) | 16 419 (68) |

Trail making B | 6.1 | 0.0023 | 6.8e-3 | −0.12 | −0.30 to 0.05 | 0.19 | −0.0077 | −0.13 to 0.11 | 0.98 | 139 (63) | 291 (52) | 16 071 (67) |

Symbol substitution | 10.3 | 3.5e-5 | 2.1e-4 | −0.17 | −0.34 to −0.01 | 0.04 | −0.035 | −0.15 to 0.08 | 0.72 | 146 (66) | 298 (54) | 16 442 (68) |

Trail making A, and trail making B were log transformed before generation of Z scores because they were non-normally distributed. Variables were transformed such that higher values indicate a better performance. Significance was determined using a post hoc Dunnett’s test. P values in bold are statistically significant (p<0.05).

*Adjusted mean difference between patients and controls, expressed in Z scores. Calculated using linear models, adjusting for age, sex and education.

AMD, adjusted mean difference; ANOVA, analysis of variance; P

_{FDR}, Benjamini-Hochberg false discovery rate corrected p values.