Table 1

Planned inclusion and exclusion criteria

Inclusion criteriaExclusion criteria
PopulationAdult patients (>16 years) with a histopathological diagnosis of a tumour of the CNS other than HGG: (1) diffuse astrocytoma, (2) oligodendroglioma, (3) diffuse midline glioma, (4) meningioma (5) lymphoma (6) metastatic tumours to the CNS, (7) ependymoma (8) papillary tumour of the pineal (9) schwannoma.Paediatric patients <16 years of age. A histopathological diagnosis of a high-grade glioma.
Intervention/comparatorUsage of 5-ALA aiming for resection. Studies with alternative surgical adjuncts in combination with 5-ALA will be included but it is anticipated that there will few studies with a comparator groupNo usage of 5-ALA.
OutcomePrimary: Extent of surgical resection either as a binary outcome of complete versus non-complete resection of enhancing tumour of continuous outcome of percentage of resection of contrast-enhancing tumour in T1-weighted MRI with contrast.
Secondary: The progression free or overall survival reported in weeks/months or years.
Adverse effects and deficits reported will be included. Systemic disease developed after use of 5-ALA and performance status of patients will be captured.
Fluorescent patterns, specificity, sensitivity, positive and negative predictive value
Studies describing fluorescence patterns with incomplete data regarding the extent of surgical resection will be included.
Studies not reporting resection or survival or fluorescent patterns will be excluded
Study designProspective and retrospective observational cohort and case–control studies with >5 patients.Case reports, abstracts, editorials and radnomised studies (if any) will not be included. According to our knowledge, no randomised study exists.
  • 5-ALA, 5-aminolevulinic acid; CNS, central nervous system; HGG, high-grade gliomas.