Table 1

Patient characteristics, counts and proportions of in-hospital deaths among 122 English hospital admissions for COVID-19 by wave

WaveMarch 2020 to July 2020 (N=74 484)August 2020 to March 2021 (N=1 65 642)
FeatureValueN (%)In-hospital deaths (crude rate as %)N (%)In-hospital deaths (crude rate as %)
Age (years)Mean (SD)67.8 (18.6)65.1 (18.6)
0–9708 (1.0)Suppr.* (<5)1452 (0.9)Suppr.* (<5)
10–19389 (0.5)10 (2.6)929 (0.6)8 (0.9)
20–291518 (2.0)33 (2.2)4006 (2.4)57 (1.4)
30–393382 (4.5)125 (3.7)9603 (5.8)200 (2.1)
40–496209 (8.3)398 (6.4)16 443 (9.9)691 (4.2)
50–5910 634 (14.3)1432 (13.5)27 786 (16.8)2308 (8.3)
60–6911 775 (15.8)2920 (24.8)29 445 (17.8)5330 (18.1)
70–7915 500 (20.8)5674 (36.6)33 396 (20.2)9713 (29.1)
80–8917 995 (24.2)8101 (45.0)31 621 (19.1)12 549 (39.7)
90+6374 (8.6)3189 (50.0)10 961 (6.6)5184 (47.3)
GenderMale42 636 (57.2)13 475 (31.6)92 219 (55.7)21 462 (23.3)
Female31 848 (42.8)8408 (26.4)73 423 (44.3)14 578 (19.9)
Ethnic groupBlack or Black British4106 (5.5)1053 (25.6)6368 (3.8)977 (15.3)
Asian or Asian British6761 (9.1)1598 (23.6)18 693 (11.3)3445 (18.4)
White51 581 (69.3)16 258 (31.5)113 513 (68.5)27 259 (24.0)
Other inc Mixed3595 (4.8)751 (20.9)7656 (4.6)961 (12.6)
Unknown8441 (11.3)2223 (26.3)19 412 (11.7)3398 (17.5)
Deprivation quintile1 (least deprived)11 212 (15.1)3397 (30.3)23 423 (14.1)5350 (22.8)
212 480 (16.8)3815 (30.6)27 600 (16.7)6537 (23.7)
314 005 (18.8)4351 (31.1)31 082 (18.8)7193 (23.1)
415 582 (20.9)4554 (29.2)35 671 (21.5)7759 (21.8)
520 846 (28.0)5708 (27.4)47 254 (28.5)9122 (19.3)
6 (unknown)359 (0.5)58 (16.2)612 (0.4)79 (12.9)
Method of admissionEmergency73 277 (98.4)21 645 (29.5)163 622 (98.8)35 772 (21.9)
Non-emergency1207 (1.6)238 (19.7)2020 (1.2)268 (13.3)
Admission sourceHome66 579 (89.4)19 302 (29.0)152 588 (92.1)32 632 (21.4)
Transfer from acute hospital513 (0.7)165 (32.2)599 (0.4)202 (33.7)
Transfer from non-acute hospital116 (0.2)53 (45.7)354 (0.2)189 (53.4)
Transfer from unknown hospital4675 (6.3)1279 (27.4)8605 (5.2)1769 (20.6)
Other/unknown2601 (3.5)1084 (41.7)3496 (2.1)1248 (35.7)
Emergency admissions in previous 12 months042 371 (56.9)10 364 (24.5)108 959 (65.8)18 789 (17.2)
115 166 (20.4)5265 (34.7)30 858 (18.6)8683 (28.1)
27331 (9.8)2744 (37.4)12 642 (7.6)4268 (33.8)
3+9616 (12.9)3510 (36.5)13 183 (8.0)4300 (32.6)
Admission monthMarch 202018 887 (25.4)6205 (32.9)
April39 911 (53.6)11 992 (30.0)
May10 860 (14.6)2773 (25.5)
June3650 (4.9)756 (20.7)
July1176 (1.6)157 (13.4)
August1114 (0.7)169 (15.2)
September4180 (2.5)747 (17.9)
October15 611 (9.4)3340 (21.4)
November23 523 (14.2)5294 (22.5)
December31 738 (19.2)7673 (24.2)
January 202164 084 (38.7)14 603 (22.8)
February20 588 (12.4)3676 (17.9)
March4804 (2.9)538 (11.2)
Charlson comorbidity scoreMean (SD)9.3 (10.2)7.7 (9.5)
ComorbidityDiabetes20 056 (26.9)6949 (34.6)43 743 (26.4)11 452 (26.2)
Hypertension32 544 (43.7)11 226 (34.5)96 339 (58.2)17 774 (18.4)
Coronary heart disease8974 (12.0)4191 (46.7)16 050 (9.7)6981 (43.5)
COPD19 588 (26.3)6211 (31.7)43 955 (26.5)11 415 (26.0)
Obesity6418 (8.6)1663 (25.9)20 496 (12.4)3607 (17.6)
Cancer4644 (6.2)1983 (42.7)8192 (4.9)3160 (38.6)
Renal disease12 333 (16.6)5476 (44.4)24 646 (14.9)9776 (39.7)
Dementia6092 (8.2)2968 (48.7)9251 (5.6)3963 (42.8)
  • *Data suppressed due to small numbers.

  • COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.