Table 2

Multilevel logistic regression results for in-hospital mortality for first and second wave COVID-19 admissions

FeatureValueFirst wave
(March 2020 to July 2020)
Second wave
(August 20 to March 21)
OR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P value
Age: OR per year<45 years1.08 (1.07 to 1.10)<0.0001
45+ years1.05 (1.04 to 1.07)<0.0001
Age1.14 (1.13 to 1.15)<0.0001
Age squared1.00 (1.00 to 1.00)<0.0001
GenderMale1.44 (1.39 to 1.49)<0.00011.42 (1.38 to 1.46)<0.0001
Female11
Ethnic groupBlack or Black British1.06 (0.97 to 1.16)0.18450.99 (0.91 to 1.07)0.7459
Asian or Asian British1.19 (1.11 to 1.28)<0.00011.36 (1.29 to 1.42)<0.0001
White11
Other inc Mixed1.06 (0.97 to 1.17)0.21980.96 (0.89 to 1.04)0.3511
Unknown1.13 (1.07 to 1.20)<0.00011.07 (1.02 to 1.12)0.0029
Deprivation quintile1 (least deprived)11
21.05 (0.98 to 1.11)0.14471.06 (1.02 to 1.11)0.007
31.10 (1.03 to 1.16)0.00291.09 (1.04 to 1.14)0.0001
41.08 (1.02 to 1.15)0.00881.12 (1.07 to 1.17)<0.0001
51.12 (1.06 to 1.19)0.00021.13 (1.08 to 1.19)<0.0001
6 (unknown)0.73 (0.53 to 0.99)0.04330.88 (0.68 to 1.15)0.3606
Method of admissionEmergency11
Non-emergency0.77 (0.65 to 0.92)0.00350.79 (0.67 to 0.93)0.0045
Admission sourceHome11
Transfer from acute hospital1.78 (1.42 to 2.22)<0.00011.97 (1.60 to 2.43)<0.0001
Transfer from non-acute hospital1.25 (0.85 to 1.83)0.26352.12 (1.70 to 2.65)<0.0001
Transfer from unknown hospital0.97 (0.88 to 1.07)0.53701.03 (0.95 to 1.12)0.4238
Other/unknown1.17 (1.07 to 1.28)0.00091.25 (1.15 to 1.35)<0.0001
Emergency admissions in previous 12 months011
11.13 (1.08 to 1.18)<0.00011.16 (1.12 to 1.20)<0.0001
21.14 (1.07 to 1.21)<0.00011.25 (1.20 to 1.31)<0.0001
3+1.11 (1.05 to 1.17)0.00031.19 (1.14 to 1.24)<0.0001
Admission monthMarch 20201
April 20200.77 (0.73 to 0.80)<0.0001
May 20200.57 (0.53 to 0.61)<0.0001
June 20200.46 (0.41 to 0.51)<0.0001
July 20200.32 (0.26 to 0.40)<0.0001
August 20200.68 (0.57 to 0.82)<0.0001
September 20200.86 (0.77 to 0.95)0.0023
October 20200.87 (0.82 to 0.92)<0.0001
November 20200.85 (0.81 to 0.89)<0.0001
December 20201.04 (1.00 to 1.09)0.0353
January 20211
February 20210.81 (0.77 to 0.85)<0.0001
March 20210.62 (0.56 to 0.69)<0.0001
ComorbidityDiabetes1.15 (1.11 to 1.20)<0.00011.10 (1.07 to 1.13)<0.0001
Hypertension0.93 (0.90 to 0.96)<0.00011.16 (1.13 to 1.19)<0.0001
Coronary heart disease1.42 (1.35 to 1.49)<0.00011.58 (1.52 to 1.64)<0.0001
COPD1.05 (1.01 to 1.09)0.01291.18 (1.15 to 1.22)<0.0001
Obesity1.46 (1.37 to 1.56)<0.00011.49 (1.43 to 1.56)<0.0001
Cancer1.55 (1.45 to 1.65)<0.00011.63 (1.55 to 1.72)<0.0001
Renal disease1.30 (1.24 to 1.36)<0.00011.41 (1.37 to 1.46)<0.0001
Dementia1.38 (1.30 to 1.46)<0.00011.34 (1.28 to 1.40)<0.0001
COVID19 daily admissions: OR per admission<4 admissions1.02 (0.99 to 1.05)0.2500
4+admissions1.01 (0.97 to 1.04)0.4425
Per 10 extra admissions1.03 (1.01 to 1.05)0.0047
Per 1 SD extra (5.1)1.01 (1.00 to 1.03)
Bed occupancyPer 10 extra occupancies1.00 (0.998 to 1.00)0.18491.00 (1.00 to 1.00)0.1077
Per 1 SD extra (29.2)1.00 (1.00 to 1.00)1.00 (1.00 to 1.00)
COVID-19 bed occupancyPer 10 extra occupancies1.00 (0.999 to 1.01)0.15071.01 (1.00 to 1.01)<0.0001
Per 1 SD extra (74.7)1.00 (0.999 to 1.001)1.05 (1.05 to 1.06)
COVID-19 MV bed occupancy: OR per bed<4 beds1.01 (0.98 to 1.03)
0.5867<0.0001
4+beds1.00 (0.97 to 1.02)0.4861
Per 10 extra occupancies0.96 (0.94 to 0.97)
Per 1 SD extra (8.7)0.96 (0.95 to 0.97)
COVID-19-related staff absencesPer 10 extra absences1.00 (1.00 to 1.00)0.93981.00 (1.00 to 1.002)0.6952
Per 1 SD extra (66.5)1.00 (1.00 to 1.00)1.00 (1.00 to 1.00)
  • SD: SD of admissions etc, calculated at hospital level.

  • COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; MV, mechanical ventilation.