Table 2

Maternal and obstetrical characteristics of the cohort 2018–2019

VariablePER totalPER urbanPER rural
n=14 527n=9435 (65%)n=5092 (35%)
Age (years) median (IQR)27 (23–32)28 (23–33)26 (22–31)
Living with HIV at pregnancy outcome3931 (27.1)3241 (34.3)690 (13.6)
Obstetric ultrasound present n (%)5583 (38.4)4063 (43.1)1520 (29.9)
Early ultrasound (ie, <22 weeks) n (% of ultrasound)3345 (59.9)2393 (58.9)952 (62.6)
Potentially unsafe medicine exposure1287 (9.0)857 (9.3)430 (8.5)
Gestational age at birth (weeks) median (IQR)40 (37–40)40 (36–40)39 (35–40)
Birth weight (g) median (IQR)3100 (2750–3440)3140 (2800–3480)2975 (2575–3320)
Low birth weight* n (%)1736 (12.0)879 (9.3)857 (16.8)
Premature birth† n(%)2949 (20.3)1735 (18.4)1214 (23.8)
Pregnancy outcome n (%)
 Live birth12 419 (85.5)1189 (82.3)4630 (90.9)
 Stillbirth296 (2.0)180 (1.9)116 (2.3)
 Neonatal death‡109 (0.8)71 (0.5)36 (0.7)
 Miscarriage395 (2.7)318 (3.4)77 (1.5)
 Ectopic pregnancy82 (0.6)60 (0.6)22 (0.4)
 Termination of pregnancy273 (1.9)223 (2.4)50 (1.0)
 Unknown953 (6.6)792 (8.4)161 (3.1)
Delivery method§ n(%)
 Born before arrival at birthing facility608 (4.7)245 (3.1)363 (7.6)
 Vaginal delivery7587 (59.2)4655 (57.9)2932 (61.3)
 Assisted delivery¶140 (1.1)51 (0.6)89 (1.9)
 Caesarean section3416 (26.6)2411 (30.0)1005 (21.0)
 Unknown1073 (8.4)680 (8.5)393 (8.2)
Infant outcome§ n(%)
 Stillborn296 (2.3)180 (2.2)116 (2.4)
 Early neonatal death‡80 (0.6)55 (0.7)25 (0.5)
 Late neonatal death29 (0.2)18 (0.2)11 (0.2)
 Alive12 419 (96.8)7798 (96.9)4630 (96.8)
Tobacco use** n(%)
 Current user1297 (8.9)87 (0.9)1210 (23.8)
 Past user55 (0.4)13 (0.1)42 (0.8)
 Never user9997 (68.8)7222 (76.5)2775 (54.5)
 Not reported3178 (21.9)2113 (14.5)1065 (7.3)
Alcohol use** n(%)
 Current user588 (4.1)339 (3.6)249 (4.9)
 Past user167 (1.2)66 (0.7)101 (2.0)
 Never user10 570 (72/8)6885 (73.0)3685 (72.4)
 Not reported3202 (22.0)2145 (14.8)1057 (7.3)
  • *Birthweight <2500 g; liveborn infants only.

  • †Birth <37 completed weeks gestation; liveborn infants only.

  • ‡Neonatal death: death before 28 days of life; early neonatal death: death before 7 days of life; late neonatal death: death between 8 and 28 days of life.

  • §Viable pregnancies (ie, >27 weeks gestation) (n=12 824).

  • ¶Forceps or vacuum delivery.

  • **Reported at first antenatal visit.

  • PER, Pregnancy Exposure Registry.