Table 3

Univariate and multivariable analysis for incomplete recovery in patients 3 months after MHI (n=133)

OR95% CIOR95% CI
SexMale (0)–Female (1)2.291.13 to 4.65NSNS
Age(16–95)1.021.00 to to 1.05
Pre-injury mental health*No (0)–Yes (1)6.000.70 to 51.3NSNS
Educational levelLow (0)–High (1)0.610.27 to 1.38NSNS
PTANo (0)–Yes (1)0.680.34 to 1.36NSNS
GCS<15 at the EDNo (0)–Yes (1)4.990.56 to 43.3NSNS
Complaints at the ED
HeadacheNo (0)–Yes (1)3.571.74 to 7.313.271.28 to 8.34
Neck painNo (0)–Yes (1)2.200.94 to 5.17NSNS
Alcohol intoxicationNo (0)–Yes (1)0.490.18 to 1.33NSNS
Complaints 2 weeks postinjury
Depression†No (0)–Yes (1)12.892.86 to 57.996.311.24 to 32.00
Anxiety†No (0)–Yes (1)3.911.34 to 11.36NSNS
Post-traumatic stress‡No (0)–Yes (1)5.702.13 to 15.24NSNS
Post-traumatic complaints(0–15)1.291.16 to 1.441.241.09 to 1.40
  • *Preinjury mental health problems.

  • †Cut-off score of >7 for anxiety or depression on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.

  • ‡Cut-off score of 19 on the Impact of Events Scale.

  • ED, emergency department; GCS, Glasgow Coma Scale; MHI, minor head injury; NS, not significant in multivariable analysis; PTA, post-traumatic amnesia.