Table 3

Awareness, knowledge and beliefs preworkshop, postworkshop and at 6-week follow-up

ItemPreworkshop
(N=8)
n (%)
Postworkshop
(N=8)
n (%)
6-week follow-up
(N=6)
n (%)
Seen or heard of the term ‘overdiagnosis’ before (yes/no)
Yes
8 (100)
Please briefly describe what overdiagnosis means in your own words
Coded as correct
4 (50)8 (100)5 (83)
Routine screening means testing healthy, asymptomatic people to find signs of diseases such as cancer. Do you think routine screening tests for healthy people are almost always a good idea?27
 Yes6 (75)01 (17)
 No2 (25)5 (63)4 (67)
 Don’t know03 (38)1 (17)
All cancers will cause illness and death if they are not found or treated26
 True1 (13)00
 False*6 (75)8 (100)6 (100)
 Don’t know1 (13)00
Have you ever heard of cancers that grow so slowly that they are unlikely to cause you problems in your lifetime?27
 No1 (13)00
 Yes7 (88)8 (100)6 (100)
Some screening programmes (eg, for prostate cancer) lead some people with harmless cancers to get treatment they do not need (would not benefit from)26 (True/false/don’t know)
 True*5 (63)8 (100)6 (100)
 Don’t know3 (38)00
Some screening programmes (eg, mammography for breast cancer) find harmless cancers more often than they prevent deaths from cancer26
 True*2 (25)6 (75)3 (50)
 False3 (38)1 (13)0
 Don’t know3 (38)1 (13)3 (50)
Disease definitions are based on distinct and objective biological structures or processes (‘strongly disagree’ to ‘strongly agree’)
 Strongly disagree3 (38)4 (50)2 (33)
 Somewhat disagree2 (25)2 (25)2 (33)
 Neither agree nor disagree1 (13)1 (13)0
 Somewhat agree2 (5)1 (13)2 (33)
Definitions of diseases and conditions can change over time (‘strongly disagree’ to ‘strongly agree’)
 Somewhat agree01 (13)2 (33)
 Strongly agree8 (100)7 (88)4 (67)
Diseases can be defined arbitrarily and subjectively by a group of people who decide where the threshold between ‘normal’ and disease lies (‘strongly disagree’ to ‘strongly agree’)
 Somewhat agree4 (50)3 (38)3 (50)
 Strongly agree4 (50)5 (63)3 (50)
Diseases are often defined by people or organisations with financial ties to companies selling products for that disease
 Strongly disagree1 (13)00
 Somewhat disagree2 (25)01 (17)
 Neither agree nor disagree3 (38)00
 Somewhat agree1 (13)6 (75)5 (83)
 Strongly agree1 (13)2 (25)0
Which out of the following proves that a cancer screening test ‘saves lives’?28 (Proves/Does not prove/Don’t know)
More cancers are detected in screening populations than in unscreened populations
 Proves1 (13)01 (17)
 Does not prove*7 (88)8 (100)5 (83)
Screen-detected cancers have better 5-year survival rates than cancers detected because of symptoms
 Proves3 (38)1 (13)0
 Does not prove*2 (25)7 (88)4 (67)
 Don’t know3 (28)02 (33)
Mortality rates are lower among screened persons than unscreened persons in a randomised trial
 Proves*6 (75)8 (100)5 (83)
 Does not prove1 (13)01 (17)
 Don’t know1 (13)00
Which study type is considered the strongest level of evidence? (Expert opinion/RCT/SR/Case-control/Cross-sectional/ Cohort)
 RCT5 (63)1 (13)1 (17)
 Systematic review and meta-analysis*3 (28)7 (88)5 (83)
In a new randomised study, people either took pill X or placebo (a sugar pill). 3% of people taking placebo died; 1% of people taking pill X died.29
Which statement is correct about how pill X changes the chance of death?
 Lowers by 66%*5 (63)8 (100)4 (67)
 Lowers by 33%3 (38)01 (17)
 Raises by 33%001 (17)
Which statement is correct about how pill X changes the chance of death?
 2 fewer deaths per 100 people*8 (100)8 (100)5 (83)
 2 more deaths per 100 people001 (17)
  • *Correct answer.

  • RCT, randomised controlled trial.