Table 3

Physical examination procedure

Physical condition
 HeightStand up straight, measure two times in a row and ask about last year’s weight.
 WeightTake off the coat and other heavy clothes, repeat the measurement twice.
 Upper arm circumferenceMeasure the circumference of the upper arm at the midpoint of the line between the shoulder and the elbow, repeat the measurement twice.
 Triceps skinfold thicknessUse a cortical thickness gauge to measure the fat thickness at the midpoint of the shoulder and elbow joint, repeat the measurement twice.
 Calf circumferenceKeep leg upright, measure the circumference of the thickest part of the calf, repeat the measurement twice.
 Waist circumferenceMeasure the waist circumference at a point 2 cm above the belly button, repeat the measurement twice.
 Hip circumferenceThe circumference between the symphysis pubis and the most convex part of the back gluteus maximus, repeat the measurement twice.
 Knee heightThe length between the knee joint and the heel, repeat the measurement twice.
 Finger distanceThe length between the index fingers of both hands, repeat the measurement twice.
Disease-related condition
 Blood pressure and pulseAfter sitting and resting for 2–5 min, start the measurement, record the diastolic and systolic blood pressure (electronic sphygmomanometer), and repeat the measurement twice.
 ECG bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA)After confirming that there is no metal in the participant’s body, use INBODY S10 (BioSpace, Seoul, Korea) to measure the BIA data, enter the participant’s information into the host, adopt a sitting posture and connect all limbs with electrodes. No talking is allowed during the measurement.
 Gait speed (s/m)Measure the pace of the participants and calculate the pace (seconds/metre) at the start and end times of 3 segments of 4 m.
 Grip strengthAsk the participant’s habit of using hands and test the grip strength of both hands twice.
 Balance testParticipants were tested for balance in three stances, including feet side by side, staggered feet, and front and rear feet. Each stance held for 10 s was deemed qualified.
 Blood sugarFingertip blood sugar test.
 Sit-up ability testsParticipants hold their shoulders, complete 1 and 5 consecutive sit-up tests, respectively, and record the completion status (whether it can be completed and when it is completed).