Table 4

Participant characteristics

CharacteristicsAll (n=1537)Men (n=643)Women (n=894)P valueMissing number
Age(years), mean(±SD)88.7 (7.36)87.7 (6.39)89.40 (7.91)<0.0011
 80–85682 (44.4)295 (46.0)387 (43.3)<0.0011
 86–90293 (19.1)142 (22.1)151 (16.9)
 91–99328 (21.4)150 (23.4)178 (19.9)
 ≥100233 (15.2)55 (8.6)178 (19.9)
Ethnics, n (%)3
 Han1530 (99.7)639 (99.7)891 (99.8)
 Others4 (0.3)2 (0.4)2 (0.2)
Educational level, n (%)<0.0016
 No formal education915 (59.8)232 (36.3)683 (76.6)
 Elementary school432 (28.2)281 (44.0)151 (16.9)
 Middle school98 (6.4)66 (10.3)32 (3.6)
 Technical secondary school35 (2.3)23 (3.6)12 (1.3)
 High school and above51 (3.3)37 (5.8)14 (1.6)
Status of spouse, n (%)<0.00120
 Alive512 (33.8)352 (55.3)160 (18.2)
 Divorced5 (0.3)2 (0.3)3 (0.3)
 Widowed1000 (65.9)282 (44.3)718 (81.5)
Annual household income per capita, n (%)8
 <1000 rmb/year77 (5.0)32 (5.0)45 (5.1)
 1000–3000 rmb/year299 (19.6)121 (18.9)178 (20.0)
 3001–6000 rmb/year257 (16.8)101 (15.8)156 (17.5)
 6001–8000 rmb/year104 (6.8)41 (6.4)63 (7.1)
 8001–10000 rmb/year75 (4.9)29 (4.5)46 (5.2)
 >10 000 rmb/year582 (38.1)269 (42.1)313 (35.2)
 Unknown135 (8.8)46 (7.2)89 (10.0)
Anthropometric measures
 Height (cm)148.4 (10.7)156.1 (7.7)142.8 (8.9)<0.00112
 Weight (kg)49.4 (10.4)54.3 (9.8)45.9 (9.4)<0.00112
 BMI (kg/m2)22.3 (3.7)22.2 (3.3)22.4 (4.0)<0.00115
 Underweight (<18.5)201 (13.2)62 (9.7)139 (15.7)
 Normal (18.5–24.0)863 (56.7)391 (61.2)472 (53.4)
 Overweight (24.0–27.9)356 (23.4)158 (24.7)198 (22.4)
 Obese (>28.0)103 (6.8)28 (4.4)75 (8.5)
 Grip strength17.5 (11.2)22.2 (11.0)14.0 (10.0)<0.00147
 4-m gait speed0.58 (0.23)0.63 (0.22)0.58 (0.23)<0.001103
Life-styles
 Drinking tea historyYes435 (28.4)329 (51.4)106 (11.9)<0.0016
No1096 (71.6)311 (48.6)785 (88.1)
 Drinking alcohol historyYes476 (31.1)196 (46.2)180 (20.2)<0.0016
No1055 (68.9)344 (53.8)711 (79.8)
 Smoking historyYes429 (28.1)332 (52.1)97 (10.9)<0.0019
No1099 (71.9)305 (47.9)794 (89.1)
Scale evaluation
 ADL scale result93.3 (14.3)95.3 (12.0)91.9 (15.6)<0.00117
 Good (100 points)934 (61.7)443 (70.0)491 (55.7)
 Mild dysfunction (>60)514 (33.9)170 (26.9)344 (39.0)
 Moderate dysfunction (41–60)36 (2.4)12 (1.9)24 (2.7)
 Severe dysfunction (21–40)17 (1.1)4 (0.6)13 (1.5)
 Completely disabled (<20)14 (0.9)4 (0.6)10 (1.1)
 IADL scale result11.4 (4.6)12.1 (4.2)10.9 (4.9)<0.00116
 Good function (≥8)1214 (79.8)542 (85.6)672 (75.7)
 Impaired function (<20)307 (20.2)91 (14.4)216 (24.3)
 MMSE scale result16.3 (8.1)19.0 (7.7)14.3 (7.7)<0.001174
 Normal151 (11.1)100 (17.3)51 (6.5)
 Cognitive impairment1212 (88.9)478 (82.7)734 (93.5)
  • ADL, Activities of Daily Living; IADL, Individual Activities of Daily Living.