Table 1

Descriptive statistics of variables by group and binary logistic regression analysis. Fisher’s exact test for binary variables and Wilcoxon rank-sum test for continuous variables

CharacteristicOverall, N=100*Controls, N=80*Cases, N=20*P value†OR/median difference
Number of beds0.0025.6 (CI 1.61 to 25.12)
 Less than 1551 (51%)47 (59%)4 (20%)
 More than 1549 (49%)33 (41%)16 (80%)
Presence of multiple rooms0.2Inf (CI 0.58 to Inf)
 Less than 310 (10%)10 (12%)0 (0%)
 More than 390 (90%)70 (88%)20 (100%)
The proportion of single rooms>0.90.88 (CI 0.09 to 4.8)
 Less than 20%89 (89%)71 (89%)18 (90%)
 More than 20%11 (11%)9 (11%)2 (10%)
Frequency of shifts staff0.80.82 (CI 0.27 to 2.45)
 Bi-weekly51 (51%)40 (50%)11 (55%)
 Daily49 (49%)40 (50%)9 (45%)
External cleaning company17 (17%)13 (16%)4 (20%)0.71.3 (CI 0.27 to 4.94)
Presence of a grey area for healthcare and non-healthcare staff41 (41%)30 (38%)11 (55%)0.22.0 (CI 0.67 to 6.24)
Dressing rooms for staff95 (95%)77 (96%)18 (90%)0.30.36 (CI 0.04 to 4.55)
Structure with multiple buildings24 (24%)19 (24%)5 (25%)>0.91.1 (CI 0.27 to 3.65)
Separate entrances69 (69%)55 (69%)14 (70%)>0.91.1 (CI 0.33 to 3.77)
Presence of isolation environment65 (65%)49 (61%)16 (80%)0.22.5 (CI 0.72 to 11.27)
Active surveillance of staff96 (96%)77 (96%)19 (95%)>0.90.74 (CI 0.06 to 40.88)
Use of personal protective equipment96 (96%)77 (96%)19 (95%)>0.90.74 (CI 0.06 to 40.88)
Trained staff on procedures to contain COVID-1989 (89%)72 (90%)17 (85%)0.70.63 (CI 0.13 to 4.09)
Trained residents on procedures to contain COVID-1980 (80%)64 (80%)16 (80%)>0.91.0 (CI 0.27 to 4.67)
Active surveillance for guests96 (96%)76 (95%)20 (100%)0.6Inf (CI 0.16 to Inf)
Presence of written operational procedure for the management of cases90 (90%)70 (88%)20 (100%)0.2Inf (CI 0.58 to Inf)
Presence of written operational procedure for new admissions70 (70%)56 (70%)14 (70%)>0.91.0 (CI 0.31 to 3.57)
Access by external suppliers45 (45%)32 (40%)13 (65%)0.0772.8 (CI 0.91 to 9.11)
New admissions after the COVID-19 outbreak13 (13%)6 (7.5%)7 (35%)0.0046.46 (CI 1.58 to 27.58)
Risk score calculated on 19 items selected from LHU25.00 (24.00, 26.00)25.00 (24.00, 26.00)25.00 (23.75, 26.00)0.70.00 (CI −1 to 1)
Facility located in a rural area0.22.1 (CI 0.65 to 6.68)
 Rural73 (73%)61 (76%)12 (60%)
 Urban27 (27%)19 (24%)8 (40%)
Opened to visitors post first lockdown29 (29%)23 (29%)6 (30%)>0.91.1 (CI 0.3 to 3.41)
At least one member of staff tested positive27 (27%)8 (10%)19 (95%)<0.001154.7 (CI 20.11 to 6824.75)
Incidence of COVID-19 in the municipality (cases per 1000 residents)46 (41, 50)44 (41, 50)50 (41, 60)0.2−5.8 (CI −10.84 to 0.3)
  • In bold p-values < 0.05

  • *n (%); median (IQR).

  • †Fisher’s exact test; Wilcoxon rank-sum test.

  • LHU, Local Health Unit.