Table 1

COVID-19 vaccine misinformation themes and subthemes

Development, production and distributionDeveloped too quicklyDiscourse around unverified claims that the development process was rushed
Not tested properlyMisinformation about the validity of COVID vaccines based on testing history
MandatesConversation about unverified or untrue claims relating to forced vaccinations
SafetyCause deathFalse claims that COVID vaccines cause death rather than prevent infection
DNA/RNA alterationClaims that COVID-19 vaccines alter DNA, usually referencing novel RNA processes
Cause autismClaims that COVID-19 vaccines will cause autism
ChemicalsTheories that claim COVID vaccines contain dangerous chemicals, including high levels of mercury, bleach, etc.
Cause COVIDClaims that COVID-19 vaccines will cause COVID-19
General side effectsAmbiguous or outlying misinformation claims that COVID-19 vaccines cause unverified side effects not mentioned in other themes
ConspiracyMicrochipsGeneral theories about microchip implantation via COVID-19 vaccines
Population controlTheories that COVID vaccines will be used for population control
Political and financialElection conspiraciesMisinformation surrounding unverified or false claims that politicians or governments influenced vaccines for election gains
Doctor kickbacksFalse claims that doctors or hospitals are incentivised to issue vaccines because they receive financial kickbacks
AlternativesMiracle curesUnfounded claims that various alternative remedies such as hydroxychloroquine or colloidal silver are preferable to vaccines
Natural immunityDiscourse around misinformation that assumes or claims that ‘natural immunity’ works better than vaccines
Morality and ethicsFetal remainsMisinformation surrounding the use of fetal or child remains in vaccines
Human experimentsClaims that COVID vaccines are human experiments, or that unethical/unlawful human experimentation produced them