Table 1

Inclusion and exclusion criteria according to the PICO framework

PICO frameworkInclusion criteriaExclusion criteria
  • All staff members in LCFs working with older people (aged 65 and above).

  • Older LCF populations or mixed LCF populations where the older population is separately studied.

  • Mixed settings can be included only if LCF-related data are separately reported.

  • Intervention is not directed at the staff of the LCF.

  • Studies included only individuals aged under 65 or where data are not separately reported for the older people within a mixed-age population.

  • Studies based outside of an LCF.

  • Studies relating only to specific populations in LCF, for example, long-stay mental health residents, people with cognitive issues, intellectual disability, etc.

  • Non-English, non-Arabic language.

  • Published before 2001.

  • Fall prevention interventions, whether single component or multifactorial/multicomponent, where there is an implementation strategy or implementation process described

  • Studies where the implementation strategy or process is not described

ComparaisonUsual care or other interventionsThere will be no restriction on the comparator used in eligible studies.
  • Implementation outcomes (eg, adoption, fidelity, etc).

  • Patient-related outcomes (ie, fall risk and/or rate)

Studies must include implementation outcomes and/or falls outcomes to be included.
  • LCF, long-term care facility; PICO, population, intervention, comparison and outcome.