Table 1

Univariate analysis of chrematistics associated with progression to mortality (n=681)

NUnivariate HR (95% CI)P value
Age (year)6811.08 (1.07 to 1.09)<0.001
Gender
 Male
 Female
423
258
Reference
1.24 (0.94 to 1.63)
0.124
Ethnicity
 Chinese
 Indian
 Malay
 Others
447
55
152
27
Reference
0.90 (0.51 to 1.59)
1.32 (0.97 to 1.80)
0.66 (0.29 to 1.50)
0.710
0.075
0.323
Stroke: haemorrhagic versus ischaemic
 Haemorrhagic
 Ischaemic stroke
191
490
Reference
1.36 (0.99 to 1.88)
0.055
Cardioembolic stroke
 No
 Moderate risk
 High risk
288
73
185
Reference
2.58 (1.65 to 4.02)
3.75 (2.69 to 5.21)
<0.001
<0.001
Artery size
 Small
 Large
187
296
Reference
1.50 (1.07 to 2.09)
0.018
Stroke classification
 LACS
 TACS
 PACS
 POCS
 Undefined
323
30
187
131
10
Reference
2.36 (1.33 to 4.16)
1.57 (1.13 to 2.17)
1.55 (1.08 to 2.21)
2.00 (0.73 to 5.47)
0.003
0.007
0.016
0.175
Significance infection, Hep B, HIV
 No
 Yes
668
13
Reference
0.65 (0.21 to 2.04)
0.465
Cirrhosis
 No
 Yes
669
12
Reference
2.03 (0.90 to 4.58)
0.088
Malignancy
 No
 Yes
622
59
Reference
2.06 (1.42 to 2.98)
<0.001
Fracture neck of femur
 No
 Yes
659
22
Reference
0.80 (0.35 to 1.80)
0.590
Atrial fibrillation
 No
 Yes
506
175
Reference
2.39 (1.82 to 3.15)
<0.001
Recurrent cerebrovascular accidents: during follow-up
 No
 Yes
613
68
Reference
1.04 (0.68 to 1.59)
0.858
Peripheral vascular disease
 No
 Yes
600
81
Reference
1.68 (1.18 to 2.39)
0.004
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
 No
 Yes
667
14
Reference
2.10 (1.08 to 4.10)
0.029
Ischaemic heart disease
 No
 Yes
465
216
Reference
1.65 (1.26 to 2.16)
<0.001
Hypertension
 No
 Yes
168
513
Reference
1.55 (1.10 to 2.18)
0.012
Diabetes mellitus
 No
 Yes
412
269
Reference
1.36 (1.04 to 1.78)
0.025
Known history of hyperlipidaemia
 No
 Yes
383
298
Reference
1.71 (1.31 to 2.24)
<0.001
High total cholesterol: during stroke admission
 No
 Yes
324
326
Reference
0.54 (0.40 to 0.71)
<0.001
Total cholesterol: LDL ratio
 No
 Yes
303
336
Reference
0.61 (0.46 to 0.80)
<0.001
Low sodium
 No
 Yes
579
102
Reference
1.90 (1.38 to 2.62)
<0.001
Patient with neurosurgical intervention for stroke
 No
 Yes
626
55
Reference
0.51 (0.27 to 0.96)
0.036
High potassium
 No
 Yes
554
127
Reference
0.68 (0.46 to 0.99)
0.044
High glucose6811.03 (1.005 to 1.05)0.018
Haemoglobin6810.77 (0.72 to 0.83)<0.001
White blood cell count6810.94 (0.90 to 0.99)0.009
Platelet count6800.99 (0.99 to 1.00)0.093
Raised blood urea
 No
 Yes
602
78
Reference
3.02 (2.17 to 4.22)
<0.001
Raised serum creatinine
 No
 Yes
408
273
Reference
1.96 (1.50 to 2.57)
<0.001
Thrombolysis with rTPA for ischaemic strokes only
 No
 Yes
533
148
Reference
0.55 (0.26 to 1.17)
0.123
Raised intracranial pressure and treatment received during stroke
 No
 Yes
643
38
Reference
0.72 (0.50 to 1.03)
0.069
  • LACS, lacunar syndrome; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; PACS, partial anterior circulation syndrome; POCS, posterior circulation syndrome; rTPA, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator; TACS, total anterior circulation syndrome.