Table 1

General characteristics of the study participants

VariableNo-IPVIPVχ2 P value*
Age (years)17.528 0.002
 ≤1928 (0.8)4 (5.2)
 20–24507 (15.1)13 (16.9)
 25–291341 (39.9)30 (39.0)
 30–341096 (32.6)19 (24.7)
 ≥35385 (11.5)11 (14.3)
Education level4.895†0.418
 Master’s degree or higher140 (4.2)7 (9.1)
 Undergraduate919 (27.4)18 (23.4)
 College degree912 (27.2)21 (27.3)
 High school degree699 (20.8)14 (18.2)
 Junior high school diploma670 (20.0)17 (22.1)
 Primary school or lower17 (0.5)0 (0.0)
Partner’s education level6.761†0.215
 Master’s degree or higher202 (6.0)6 (7.8)
 Undergraduate998 (29.7)22 (28.6)
 College degree844 (25.1)18 (23.4)
 High school degree698 (20.8)13 (16.9)
 Junior high school diploma600 (17.9)16 (20.8)
 Primary school or lower15 (0.4)2 (2.6)
Work status after pregnancy0.0070.933
 Employed2065 (61.5)47 (61.0)
 Unemployed1292 (38.5)30 (39.0)
Partner’s working status0.024‡0.876
 Employed3217 (95.8)73 (94.8)
 Unemployed140 (4.2)4 (5.2)
Marital status0.4400.507
 Married3118 (92.9)70 (90.9)
 Unmarried/divorced/widowed239 (7.1)7 (9.1)
Living situation3.3370.189
 Couple alone2263 (67.4)54 (70.1)
 Living with in-laws844 (25.1)14 (18.2)
 Living with parents250 (7.4)9 (11.7)
Professional psychological counselling17.816 <0.001
 Not received3125 (93.1)62 (80.5)
 Received232 (6.9)15 (19.5)
Family care45.788 <0.001
 Good functioning1992 (59.3)18 (23.4)
 Moderately dysfunction872 (26.0)31 (40.3)
 Severe dysfunction493 (14.7)28 (36.4)
Gestational age0.9440.624
 First trimester1122 (33.4)22 (28.6)
 Second trimester1122 (33.4)29 (37.7)
 Third trimester1113 (33.2)26 (33.8)
Vaginal bleeding2.6230.105
 No2537 (75.6)52 (67.5)
 Yes820 (24.4)25 (32.5)
Pregnancy complications6.730 0.009
 No2601 (77.5)50 (64.9)
 Yes756 (22.5)27 (35.1)
Pregnancy intention3.641†0.144
 Planned conception1796 (53.5)33 (42.9)
 Unplanned pregnancy1452 (43.3)41 (53.2)
 Artificial insemination109 (3.2)3 (3.9)
Intimacy with partner since COVID-1964.846 <0.001
 Essentially unchanged2554 (76.1)47 (61.0)
 Strained65 (1.9)12 (15.6)
 More intimate738 (22.0)18 (23.4)
Household income since COVID-1912.921† 0.004
 Essentially unchanged1805 (53.8)30 (39.0)
 Increased60 (1.8)5 (6.5)
 Decreased by 20%–50%1165 (34.7)30 (39.0)
 Decrease by ≥50%327 (9.7)12 (15.6)
Smoking19.565‡ <0.001
 No3302 (98.4)70 (90.9)
 Yes55 (1.6)7 (9.1)
Partner’s smoking habits1.2170.270
 No2082 (62.0)43 (55.8)
 Yes1275 (38.0)34 (44.2)
Drinking8.892‡ 0.003
 No3195 (95.2)67 (87.0)
 Yes162 (4.8)10 (13.0)
Partner’s drinking habits7.672 0.006
 No2441 (72.7)45 (58.4)
 Yes916 (27.3)32 (41.6)
Exercise4.327 0.038
 No2412 (71.8)47 (61.0)
 Yes945 (28.2)30 (39.0)
Sitting time per day, hour14.533 0.006
 ≤1454 (13.5)19 (24.7)
 1–31069 (31.8)21 (27.3)
 3–5829 (24.7)11 (14.3)
 5–10831 (24.8)18 (23.4)
 ≥10174 (5.2)8 (10.4)
  • Data are presented as n (%).

  • *Values in bold face are statistically significant at p<0.05.

  • †Fisher’s exact test.

  • ‡Calibration χ2 test.

  • IPV, intimate partner violence.