Table 2

Summary of the exploratory factor analysis of the six-factor solution (n=973)

Item #Original itemRotated factor loadingsUniqueness
Factor 1Factor 2Factor 3Factor 4Factor 5Factor 6
Q01 Antimicrobial resistance is a significant problem in this hospital0.21590.04100.13890.00570.57010.04160.6056
Q02 Antimicrobial resistance is a significant problem in Indonesia0.24330.10730.32950.05880.57420.03850.4861
Q03 A cause of antimicrobial resistance is using too many antimicrobial drugs0.16410.20060.39930.06950.5361−0.04620.4790
Q04 Lack of hand disinfection by healthcare workers causes spread of antimicrobial resistance0.06400.0902−0.25330.01520.57250.11790.5817
Q05 Use of broad-spectrum antibiotics can increase antimicrobial resistance when narrower-spectrum antibiotics are available that are equally effective0.21500.05360.14820.00050.54800.10930.6167
Q06 Antibiotic resistance is also a problem outside of the hospital, in communities0.20880.03180.24630.06320.47660.04320.6617
Q07 In this hospital, patient rooms are cleaned according to hospital cleaning protocol once a patient with a multidrug-resistant organism has been discharged0.10380.07530.08680.02100.03780.60580.6071
Q08 Adherence to hand-hygiene protocols is excellent at this hospital−0.00980.03640.06060.1099−0.08300.63680.5705
Q11 Antibiotics are overused in Indonesia0.19240.18310.5138−0.08090.2489−0.23180.5432
Q12 Antibiotics are overused in this hospital0.05480.04170.2094−0.45500.1635−0.23810.6610
Q13 Microbiology laboratory results are efficiently communicated to the treating physician0.16890.1174−0.09150.0532−0.09630.51160.6754
Q14 I regularly refer to/consider the antibiotic susceptibility patterns at this hospital/institution (ie, the institutional antibiogram) when empirically prescribing antibiotics0.02880.1070−0.0292−0.02370.20560.61150.5701
Q15 If medically appropriate, intravenous antibiotics should be stepped down to an oral alternative after 3 days−0.08730.20850.1141−0.08500.23110.36170.7444
Q16 Restrictions on antibiotics impair my ability to provide good patient care0.04600.18390.05270.40310.0843−0.08680.7842
Q17 More judicious use of antibiotics would decrease antimicrobial resistance0.30100.07470.73620.08200.08920.06480.3429
Q18 Following evidence-based antibiotic guidelines will help optimise treatment outcomes0.22740.19340.65650.12060.12560.18510.4153
Q19 In general, rational antibiotic prescribing for my patients is high on my list of priorities0.18450.18040.52460.15740.11840.32280.5151
Q20 Developing hospital antibiotic guidelines is more useful than applying international guidelines0.18030.00750.3499−0.13350.26310.06720.7534
Q21 I am often unsure if a patient needs an antibiotic or not0.04890.02600.04970.5640−0.33640.10210.5527
Q22 I am often unsure which antibiotic to prescribe−0.00840.04570.12560.5670−0.19380.07810.6170
Q23 I will stop antibiotics that others have prescribed in the absence of an appropriate indication0.0016−0.06200.1517−0.11370.20900.38920.7650
Q24 Patients with high fever (≥39°C) must be treated with antibiotics0.00770.13310.16950.47940.2095−0.23510.6245
Q25 If I am uncertain about the diagnosis of infection, but think it is possible, I feel safer prescribing an antibiotic0.0217−0.0415−0.08770.67410.1927−0.00860.4985
Q26 Fear of patient deterioration or complications leads me to prescribe antibiotics more freely0.01130.0039−0.14590.70920.08830.02460.4672
Q27 I frequently prescribe antibiotics because patients or their relatives insist on it0.10690.04740.28690.63180.0518−0.01000.5021
Q28 I am aware that my hospital has an antimicrobial stewardship programme (ASP)0.24340.62240.29180.08660.04180.01100.4588
Q29 I understand what the purpose of ASP is0.22170.69570.26350.11880.00920.01990.3828
Q30 ASP improve patient care0.23640.77440.08730.09320.08520.12410.3055
Q31 ASP reduces the problem of antimicrobial resistance0.27750.75320.09490.01720.09060.17530.3074
Q32 ASP reduces this hospital’s infection rates0.20450.6670−0.11220.05690.12830.17990.4486
Q33 Additional staff education on antimicrobial prescribing is needed0.52020.28160.0917−0.00790.2203−0.02840.5923
Q34 Regular audit and feedback encourage me to prescribe antibiotics prudently0.61510.35810.00750.00640.14020.11170.4612
Q35 Rapid and accurate diagnostic tests are useful for diagnosis of infectious diseases and guidance on antibiotic therapy0.67140.25760.1522−0.03620.03860.03790.4555
Q36 To reduce antibiotic overuse in hospitals, implementation of antibiotic restriction (eg, antibiotic tiers) is a useful measure0.64280.26700.1088−0.03350.21530.00130.4562
Q37 To curb antimicrobial resistance, regular consultations or ward rounds with a clinical microbiologist or infectious disease physician are useful0.70460.07870.00610.01900.18810.07810.4555
Q38 To curb antimicrobial resistance, doctors need to have timely access to microbiological test results to guide antibiotic therapy0.71970.08350.27860.09850.06700.08200.3765
Q39 Up-to-date information on hospital antimicrobial resistance patterns is important for developing hospital antibiotic guidelines0.73740.08540.32230.10880.17390.03480.3018
Q40 Effective infection prevention and control in the hospital reduces antimicrobial resistance0.70670.16900.28760.09500.17980.05330.3452
% of variance explained11.568.407.437.326.985.72Overall
  • Table shows the results of the exploratory factor analysis (principal axis factoring) with orthogonal varimax rotation of the six-factor solution using the factor, pcf command in Stata.

  • Rotated factor loadings: a measure of how much each item contributes to the factor. Loadings close to −1 or 1 indicate that the factor strongly affects the item and loadings close to 0 indicate that the factor has a weak effect on the item.

  • Item #9 and 10 were excluded from the analysis as explained in the Results section.

  • Uniqueness: shows the proportion of the item’s variance that is not explained by the factors