Table 4

Physician subgroup analysis

Factor 1Factor 2Factor 3Factor 4Factor 5Factor 6
Coeff95% CIP valueCoeff95% CIP valueCoeff95% CIP valueCoeff95% CIP valueCoeff95% CIP valueCoeff95% CIP value
Hospital
05RefRefRefRefRefRef
010.194−0.089 to 0.4770.1790.422 0.701 to0.142 0.003 0.244−0.039 to 0.5270.091−0.167−0.451 to 0.1170.2480.430 0.716 to0.145 0.003 0.504 0.778 to0.23 0.000
020.064−0.13 to 0.2580.5180.352 0.543 to0.161 0.000 0.134−0.06 to 0.3280.174−0.180−0.375 to 0.0140.069−0.095−0.29 to 0.1010.342−0.087−0.274 to 0.1010.366
030.164−0.116 to 0.4440.252−0.066−0.343 to 0.2110.641 0.387 0.107 to 0.668 0.007 0.131−0.151 to 0.4120.363−0.044−0.327 to 0.2380.7580.092−0.18 to 0.3640.507
040.117−0.218 to 0.4530.4940.116−0.215 to 0.4480.4920.096−0.239 to 0.4320.5730.249−0.088 to 0.5860.148−0.081−0.419 to 0.2570.638 0.361 0.035 to 0.686 0.030
060.196−0.153 to 0.5440.2710.106−0.239 to 0.450.548 0.419 0.07 to 0.768 0.019 0.013−0.338 to 0.3630.9440.432 0.783 to0.08 0.016 0.479 0.141 to 0.817 0.005
Departments
SurgicalRefRefRefRefRefRef
Medical 0.239 0.073 to 0.405 0.005 0.150−0.014 to 0.3140.073−0.120−0.286 to 0.0460.156 0.307 0.140 to 0.473 0.000 0.221 0.054 to 0.389 0.009 0.398 0.559 to0.237 0.000
Acute0.275 0.488 to0.062 0.011 0.214 0.425 to0.004 0.046 0.273 0.486 to0.06 0.012 0.169−0.045 to 0.3820.1220.124−0.091 to 0.3380.258 0.242 0.036 to 0.449 0.021
Other−0.081−0.253 to 0.0920.358−0.027−0.197 to 0.1440.760−0.086−0.259 to 0.0860.3260.046−0.127 to 0.2190.6030.119−0.055 to 0.2920.1810.302 0.469 to0.135 0.000
MedicalRefRefRefRefRefRef
Acute0.514 0.745 to0.283 0.000 0.364 0.593 to0.136 0.002 −0.153−0.384 to 0.0780.194−0.138−0.370 to 0.0940.243−0.098−0.330 to 0.1350.411 0.640 0.417 to 0.864 0.000
Other0.320 0.507 to0.133 0.001 −0.177−0.361 to 0.00830.0610.034−0.154 to 0.2210.7240.261 0.449 to 0.073 0.006 −0.103−0.291 to 0.0860.2850.096−0.085 to 0.2770.298
Medical hierarchy
ConsultantRefRefRefRefRefRef
Intern0.744 1.374 to0.115 0.020 0.637 0.015 to 1.259 0.045 0.443−0.187 to 1.0740.1680.067−0.565 to 0.6990.8360.495−0.14 to 1.1290.1260.003−0.607 to 0.6130.993
GP0.168−0.096 to 0.4320.2120.153−0.108 to 0.4130.2510.397 0.661 to0.133 0.003 −0.169−0.434 to 0.0950.210−0.011−0.276 to 0.2550.938−0.024−0.279 to 0.2320.857
Resident−0.091−0.287 to 0.1050.363 0.297 0.104 to 0.490 0.003 0.004−0.192 to 0.1990.9710.271 0.468 to0.075 0.007 0.058−0.139 to 0.2550.5630.202 0.391 to0.012 0.037
Other−0.013−0.491 to 0.4660.9580.148−0.325 to 0.6200.5410.252−0.227 to 0.7310.303−0.172−0.653 to 0.3080.482−0.013−0.495 to 0.4690.9590.304−0.159 to 0.7680.198
InternRefRefRefRefRefRef
GP 0.912 0.245 to 1.579 0.007 −0.485−1.144 to 0.1750.150−0.840−1.508 to −0.1720.014−0.236−0.906 to 0.4340.489−0.505−1.18 to 0.1670.141−0.0263−0.673 to 0.6200.936
Resident 0.653 0.0458 to 1.261 0.035 −0.340−0.941 to −0.2600.267−0.440−1.048 to 0.1690.157−0.338−0.948 to 0.2720.278−0.436−1.049 to 0.1760.162−0.205−0.793 to 0.3840.496
Other0.732−0.457 to 1.5090.065−0.490−1.258 to 0.2790.212−0.191−0.970 to 0.5870.630−0.239−1.020 to 0.5420.548−0.507−1.291 to 0.2760.2040.302−0.452 to 1.0550.433
ResidentRefRefRefRefRefRef
GP0.259−0.037 to 0.5550.086−0.145−0.437 to 0.1480.333−0.400−0.696 to −0.1040.0080.102−0.196 to 0.3990.503−0.069−0.367 to 0.2290.6510.178−0.108 to 0.4650.223
Other0.0781−0.417 to 0.5740.757−0.150−0.639 to 0.3400.5500.248−0.248 to 0.7440.3260.099−0.399 to 0.5960.697−0.710−0.570 to 0.4280.780 0.506 0.163 to 1.29 0.039
Years in current profession
0–5RefRefRefRefRefRef
6–100.089−0.122 to 0.2990.4100.225 0.017 to 0.434 0.034 −0.089−0.300 to 0.1220.4100.094−0.118 to 0.3050.385 0.290 0.077 to 0.502 0.008 0.053−0.151 to 0.2580.608
11–150.087−0.185 to 0.3580.532−0.015−0.283 to 0.2540.915−0.066−0.338 to 0.2070.6370.271−0.002 to 0.5440.0520.156−0.118 to 0.430.265−0.095−0.358 to 0.1690.481
>150.117−0.118 to 0.3530.3280.194−0.039 to 0.4270.102−0.044−0.279 to 0.1920.715−0.057−0.293 to 0.1790.637 0.333 0.096 to 0.57 0.006 0.366 0.138 to 0.594 0.002
Public sector*−0.064−0.4 to 0.2730.7100.264−0.207 to 0.7360.272−0.238−0.575 to 0.1000.1670.256−0.835 to 0.5950.1400.192−0.148 to 0.5330.2680.3620.273 to 0.9960.264
Tertiary level*−0.093−0.42 to 0.2340.577−0.289−0.767 to 0.1900.237−0.047−0.375 to 0.2810.779−0.317−0.647 to 0.0120.0590.052−0.279 to 0.3830.758−0.407−1.065 to 0.250.225
  • The table summarises the results of the multivariable mixed-effect linear regression models to assess the associations between hospital (#1–6), department, medical hierarchy, work experience, health sector, healthcare level as the independent variables of interest and each of the factor scores (#1–6) as the dependent variable. Each model adjusted for the possible interdependence of observations clustered within hospitals, as well as for the confounders sex and AMS training. Values in bold indicate statistical significance.

  • *This model did not include hospital as an independent variable due to collinearity.

  • AMS, antimicrobial stewardship; GP, general practitioner.