Table 1

Eligibility criteria

Study design
  • Randomised controlled trials

  • Non-randomised studies

Study characteristics
  • Study identified via electronic database search, grey literature, research archive or reference lists of eligible studies

  • Full-text article available

  • Adults aged (≥18 years) with chronic non-specific spine-related pain (ie, neck, thoracic or low back pain)

  • Studies with categorised aged group >90% of participants must be adults (≥18 years)

  • Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia and the Fear Avoidance Behaviour Questionnaire

  • Any other validated measures to ascertain fear of movement/kinesiophobia.