Table 4

Summary of key findings from qualitative evaluation and their implications

ThemeKey findingImplication
Acceptability of content
  • Intervention content was perceived as valuable.

  • Comprehensive format of the intervention with multiple components was perceived as useful.

  • Intervention increased knowledge of screening through health education by medical professional, as well as personal testimonies.

  • Personal testimonies were perceived as impactful.

  • Role of faith in intervention was acceptable.

  • Faith-based messages resonated with women.

  • Women stated that intervention improved knowledge of cancer screening.

  • Intervention was perceived as encouraging to engage in cancer screening.

  • Increased intention to engage in screening was reported.

  • Change in screening behaviour was noted: some women had acted, made an appointment and/or engaged in screening.

  • Intervention needs to be complex, tackle multifactorial barriers to screening and work at multiple levels.

  • Faith can be used as an enabler as part of cancer screening and health promotion efforts, but not in isolation.

  • Incorporating aspects of spirituality and faith in cancer screening could enhance health promotion efforts.

  • Incorporating personal experiences of screening and cancer survival, through videos or in person, could enhance health promotion efforts.

  • Increasing knowledge by presenting health education offered by a medical professional who can provide an opportunity to answer questions is important.

  • Findings support this community-based intervention may increase cancer screening uptake.

  • Additional research is required to understand and establish effectiveness and on a larger scale.

Acceptability of delivery
  • Intervention was experienced as engaging.

  • Opportunity to discuss barriers, facilitated by peers, was important.

  • Delivery by medical professional was valuable.

  • Delivery by religious scholar was valuable.

  • Women reported feeling comfortable in a group with women they were not familiar with.

  • Discussion of sensitive topics such as colorectal, breast and cervical cancers was acceptable and important.

  • Language barriers were found.

  • Technology was useful due to circumstances, although face-to-face meeting was preferred.

  • Community health promotion interventions need to be engaging and should incorporate active learning.

  • Including credible and trusted people, like religious scholars and medical professionals in cancer screening interventions could enhance health promotion efforts.

  • Create a comfortable environment for community interventions, possibly facilitated by peers, although the role of peer educators need further research.

  • Interventions like these can stimulate discussion in the community about sensitive women’s health issues and may contribute to breaking down social stigma.

  • Interventions must address generic barriers that are shared with other women, such as fear of the outcome or fear of the procedure.

  • Interventions and health education materials need to address language barriers.

Improving the delivery and process
  • More meetings regarding cancer screening were requested.

  • Meetings regarding other health issues were requested.

  • Women would like more opportunities to engage with healthcare providers.

  • Interventions should include a healthcare provider.

  • Interventions should include a religious scholar.

  • Interventions should use more personal testimonies.

  • Materials should be clear, using pictures or videos and should provide practical information.

  • Peer educators can facilitate increasing awareness in the community and signpost accordingly.

  • Support from men in engaging in cancer screening would be valuable.

  • Findings support continuation of community-based interventions, which may play an important role in the promotion of cancer screening and health promotion of other health issues.

  • Using religious and community leaders can play an important role in community-centred health promotion.

  • Using healthcare providers can play an important role in community-centred health promotion.

  • Develop practical and culturally appropriate health promotion materials.

  • Interventions should include personal testimonies, and these may increase knowledge of cancer screening and enhance health promotion messages.

  • Peer educators may have a role to play in health promotion.

  • Including men separately in community-centred approaches may help tackle screening barriers for women.

  • More research is needed regarding the role of men in women’s cancer screening.