Table 4

Positive OR for NSTEMI by age group

N of total (%)<70 years(n=1039)≥70 years (n=467)P value for interaction
Presenting symptom
Chest pain1468 (97.5)1.98 (1.28–3.04)2.67 (1.60–4.44)0.374
Location*
Retrosternal661 (45.0)1.98 (1.28–3.04)2.67 (1.60–4.44)0.374
Precordial317 (21.5)0.33 (0.16–0.66)0.20 (0.07–0.56)0.444
Thorax, other parts396 (27.0)1.05 (0.65–1.70)0.75 (0.43–1.32)0.382
Shoulders or arms34 (2.3)1.00 (1.00–4.37)0.41 (0.05–3.18)0.485
Jaw or neck25 (1.7)0.79 (0.10–6.15)1.68 (0.44–6.36)0.546
Sum typical† location1391 (94.8)2.32 (0.55–9.73)1.09 (0.41–2.94)0.398
Epigastrial or abdominal81 (5.5)0.21 (0.03–1.53)1.74 (0.78–3.87)0.052
Other location‡34 (2.3)0.43 (0.06–3.20)0.999
Sum atypical§ location77 (5.2)0.27 (0.07–1.13)1.24 (0.57–2.68)0.068
Character
Tight/crushing960 (63.7)1.06 (0.67–1.65)0.92 (0.55–1.52)0.323
Dull/heavy81 (5.4)0.39 (0.09–1.64)1.90 (0.81–4.45)0.074
SUM typical¶ character1033 (68.6)1.36 (0.68–2.71)1.76 (0.76–4.06)0.961
Burning89 (5.9)2.01 (0.98–4.10)2.00 (0.85–4.69)0.992
Stinging218 (14.5)0.41 (0.19–0.86)0.48 (0.17–1.39)0.829
Other atypical2 (0.1)1.04 (0.99–1.10)1.02 (0.96–1.09)0.641
Sum atypical** character299 (19.9)0.76 (0.43–1.34)1.11 (0.55–2.24)0.407
Unknown263 (17.5)1.45 (0.87–2.44)1.21 (0.67–2.17)0.638
Typical pain††981 (66.8)1.41 (0.75–2.68)1.83 (0.86–3.90)0.607
Atypical pain‡‡224 (15.3)0.71 (0.37–1.34)0.55 (0.26–1.16)0.607
Radiation
Multiple directions298 (19.8)1.84 (1.17–2.89)1.36 (0.74–2.52)0.436
Both arms66 (4.4)12.50 (6.58–23.75)5.35 (2.26–12.62)0.119
Left arm296 (19.7)0.73 (0.42–1.28)1.67 (0.93–3.00)0.045
Right arm20 (1.7)0.73 (0.09–5.62)1.03 (0.12–8.94)0.82
Both shoulders25 (1.7)0.73 (0.09–5.62)3.05 (0.87–10.68)0.242
Left or right shoulder92 (6.1)0.14 (0.02–0.98)0.20 (0.03–1.53)0.777
Jaw321 (21.3)1.53 (0.97–2.41)1.29 (0.70–2.38)0.65
Epigastrium or abdomen38 (2.5)0.74 (0.17–3.16)2.30 (0.58–9.09)0.267
Back189 (12.5)1.31 (0.73–2.34)2.59 (0.23–28.97)0.792
Numbness upper extremities128 (8.5)1.15 (0.59–2.24)1.31 (0.48–3.60)0.843
Any radiation789 (52.4)1.47 (0.95–2.27)2.25 (1.33–3.79)0.223
Unknown26 (1.7)2.64 (0.72–9.62)1.74 (0.46–6.60)0.662
Additional symptoms§§
Shortness of breath628 (41.7)1.03 (0.68–1.57)1.14 (0.69–1.88)0.757
Nausea318 (21.1)0.75 (0.43–1.29)1.23 (0.68–2.20)0.225
Vomiting43 (2.9)1.68 (0.57–4.96)3.27 (1.15–9.27)0.386
Diaphoresis or clamminess287 (19.1)1.90 (1.21–2.99)1.86 (1.02–3.38)0.953
Palpitations174 (11.6)0.61 (0.28–1.35)0.72 (0.33–1.58)0.777
Dizziness226 (15.0)0.39 (0.18–0.86)0.38 (0.15–0.98)0.966
Sum typical¶¶ add. symptoms1005 (66.7)0.97 (0.63–1.51)1.01 (0.60–1.70)0.898
Dependent of stature124 (8.2)0.41 (0.15–1.15)0.50 (0.15–1.66)0.824
Dependent of respiration149 (9.9)0.23 (0.07–0.73)0.15 (0.02–1.11)0.72
Pain on palpation177 (11.8)0.44 (0.19–1.03)0.29 (0.09–0.97)0.586
Sum atypical*** add. symptoms351 (23.3)0.28 (0.14–0.57)0.28 (0.12–0.67)0.995
Effect of NG268 (17.8)1.23 (0.56–2.71)2.18 (0.87–5.50)0.356
Onset of symptoms
During physical activity285 (18.9)3.32 (2.14–5.16)2.42 (1.39–4.22)0.382
After physical activity72 (4.8)1.47 (0.64–3.34)1.06 (0.30–3.76)0.675
Acute or chronic psychologic stress115 (7.6)0.19 (0.05–0.77)0.60 (0.14–2.63)0.26
During rest1027 (68.2)0.45 (0.30–0.69)0.52 (0.31–0.87)0.697
Unknown18 (1.2)2.40 (0.50–11.47)3.17 (0.74–13.57)0.798
Symptom duration
<30 min377 (25.0)0.86 (0.53–1.39)1.32 (0.74–2.34)0.333
30–60 min84 (5.6)1.60 (0.73–3.48)1.18 (0.43–3.22)0.574
60 min to 24 hours482 (32.0)1.36 (0.88–2.09)1.63 (0.99–2.70)0.748
>24 hours155 (10.3)0.08 (0.01–0.58)0.20 (0.05–0.85)0.489
Terminated by NG88 (5.8)1.92 (0.94–3.91)1.24 (0.45–3.40)0.428
Terminated by morphine37 (2.5)1.60 (0.46–5.53)0.33 (0.04–2.60)0.196
Unknown283 (18.8)0.86 (0.49–1.50)0.63 (0.32–1.24)0.494
Intensity of pain in intervals†††1506 (100)1.51 (1.05–2.18)1.70 (1.14–2.55)0.662
Last 24 hours
Exertional chest pain >once48 (3.2)2.33 (0.86–6.31)1.15 (0.38–3.50)0.356
Last week
Exertional chest pain268 (17.8)4.08 (2.63–6.34)1.81 (1.03–3.15)0.025
Shortness of breath60 (4.0)1.16 (0.40–3.34)1.46 (0.53–4.06)0.758
Pain similar to previous infarction57 (3.8)0.55 (0.13–2.32)0.85 (0.25–2.97)0.652
  • Statistically significant differences highlighted

  • *In patients having chest pain at presentation.

  • †Summation of traditionally considered typical pain location like retrosternal, precordial, other parts of thorax, shoulder, arms, jaw or neck.

  • ‡Summation of pain in the back and all other non-typical locations.

  • §Summation of traditionally considered atypical pain location like epigastrium, abdomen, back or other locations.

  • ¶Summation of traditionally considered typical pain character like tight, crushing, dull or heavy.

  • **Summation of traditionally considered atypical pain character like burning, stinging or other.

  • ††Typical pain is defined as the combination of traditionally considered typical location and typical character.

  • ‡‡Atypical pain is defined as either atypical location or atypical character, or both.

  • §§If not stated considered negative.

  • ¶¶Summation of traditionally considered typical additional symptoms like shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting. diaphoresis, clamminess, palpitations or dizziness.

  • ***Summation of traditionally considered atypical additional symptoms like pain dependent of position, respiration or palpation.

  • †††Four groups; no pain; Visual analogue scale (VAS) 1–3.5; VAS 3.5–6.5; VAS>6.5.

  • AMI, acute myocardial infarction; NG, Nitroglycerin; NSTEMI, non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction.