Table 1

Additional country selection criteria considered during study planning and rationale for final selection, as of 2018

RegionCountryInclusion decisionRationale for inclusion decisionSelection methodDemocracy index*16
Asia and South East AsiaIndiaNoGreater policy impact than Indonesia; unable to conduct research in-countryBothFlawed democracy
IndonesiaPotential AlternateLess policy impact than IndiaCAGRFlawed democracy
NepalYes DTP3 gap closure and sustained high coverageCAGRHybrid regimen
LaosPotential AlternateLaos is an outlier in government type, so lessons will be less generalisable, signs of recent declinesBothAuthoritarian
East/Southern AfricaZimbabwePotential AlternatePossible systematic issues in coverage; Anglophone language groupBothAuthoritarian
BurundiNoSecurity concerns and access issues; Anglophone language groupSegmentAuthoritarian
KenyaNoHigher trust in the data, more connections in country; Anglophone language groupSegmentHybrid regimen
MalawiNoSmall country, high coverage for a long period of time; Anglophone language groupSegmentHybrid regimen
ZambiaYesHigh DTP1 coverage maintained over the time period, closed gap between DTP1 and DTP3; Anglophone language groupSegmentHybrid regimen
West AfricaSenegal†YesBest option given difference in DTP3 and measles; relatively flat/downward since 2010, but signs of recent improvement; Francophone language groupSegmentFlawed democracy
Burkina FasoPotential AlternateRelatively flat coverage—no change seen; Francophone language groupBothHybrid regimen
CameroonNoSecurity concerns; Francophone language groupCAGRAuthoritarian
TogoPotential AlternateClosing the gap between DTP1 and DTP3, but with slight declines in DTP1; Francophone language groupBothAuthoritarian
  • *Terms from the Economist Democracy Index 2018, and briefly defined as follows: Flawed Democracies have free and fair elections, and basic civil liberties are respected even through problems and weaknesses in the system; hybrid regimens have elections with irregularities, contain weaknesses in the system and typically contain a weak civil society; Authoritarian Regimens do not have free and fair elections, if they occur at all, and infringe on civil liberties, along with repressing criticism and censoring dissenters.16

  • †As of the 2020 Democracy Index Report, Senegal is now considered a ‘Hybrid Regimen’.20

  • CAGR, compound annual growth rate; DTP, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis.