Table 4

Joint effects of life satisfaction and income*† on counts of (1) hospitalisation or emergency department visits, or (2) outpatient visits for any mental health condition (N=131 809)

Hospital or emergency department visit
Satisfied and high incomeRef.
Satisfied and mid income1.37 (1.08 to 1.73)
Satisfied and low income2.93 (2.23 to 3.84)
Neither and high income0.96 (0.67 to 1.39)
Neither and mid income2.73 (1.71 to 4.35)
Neither and low income6.10 (3.20 to 11.61)
Dissatisfied and high income2.74 (1.54 to 4.86)
Dissatisfied and mid income4.39 (2.57 to 7.50)
Dissatisfied and low income5.33 (3.81 to 7.45)
Very dissatisfied and high income6.20 (3.62 to 10.64)
Very dissatisfied and mid income3.04 (1.70 to 5.43)
Very dissatisfied and low income11.25 (5.32 to 23.80)
Outpatient visit
Satisfied and high incomeRef.
Satisfied and mid income0.89 (0.79 to 1.00)
Satisfied and low income1.13 (1.00 to 1.28)
Neither and high income1.73 (1.31 to 2.27)
Neither and mid income1.50 (1.23 to 1.83)
Neither and low income1.64 (1.32 to 2.04)
Dissatisfied and high income2.09 (1.55 to 2.82)
Dissatisfied and mid income1.94 (1.45 to 2.60)
Dissatisfied and low income2.51 (1.98 to 3.18)
Very dissatisfied and high income3.33 (1.65 to 6.70)
Very dissatisfied and mid income1.37 (1.03 to 1.83)
Very dissatisfied and low income1.84 (1.29 to 2.63)
  • Source: pooled participants of the Canadian Community Health Survey surveyed from 2005 to 2014, linked to the Registered Persons Database, Canadian Institute for Health Information Discharge Abstract Database, the Ontario Mental Health Reporting System, the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System, and the Ontario Health Insurance Plan billings databases.

  • *Fully adjusted rate ratios from Poisson regressions (with balanced repeated replication to produce 95% CIs) for a count of the number of (1) hospitalisation or emergency department visits, or (2) outpatient visits for any mental health condition, per person-days of follow-up for up to 5 years following interview.

  • †Fully adjusted model includes age, sex, survey cycle, immigrant status, household income, having had any mental health visit in the 3 years prior to survey interview, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity level and body mass index.