Table 2

Sleep characteristics by gender and employment status or life course stage, Understanding Society COVID-19 Study and COVID-19 Survey Data

Change in sleep problemsChange in sleep duration
MenWomenMenWomen
Life course stage
 Young single childless (ref.)−0.001 (0.92)0.23 (0.98)−0.36 (1.23)−0.22 (1.61)*
 Young partnered childless0.06 (0.74)0.26 (0.93)*−0.34 (1.01)−0.35 (1.28)*†
 Partnered younger children0.22 (1.00)†0.38 (1.00)†0.03 (0.99)−0.06 (1.30)*†
 Partnered older children0.11 (0.86)0.23 (0.94)−0.21 (1.00)−0.10 (1.30)*
 Single parent0.16 (0.98)0.26 (1.01)−0.06 (0.96)−0.04 (1.39)*
 Older partnered childless0.01 (0.77)0.12 (0.87)−0.22 (0.86)0.03 (0.93)
 Older single childless0.06 (0.81)0.11 (0.88)−0.08 (0.77)†0.02 (1.02)†
 Change in financial situation0.15 (0.87)†0.33 (0.98)†−0.22 (0.90)−0.05 (0.14)†
Employment status
 Employed furloughed0.10 (0.90)0.22 (1.01)†−0.63 (1.20)†−0.21 (1.46)†
 Self-employed0.12 (0.80)†0.30 (0.97)†−0.30 (1.02)†−0.38 (1.52)*†
 Employed not furloughed0.03 (0.85)†0.26 (0.97)†−0.15 (0.89)−0.06 (1.08)*†
 Not in the labour force (ref.)0.05 (0.84)0.09 (0.85)−0.05 (0.85)−0.03 (1.12)
Change in employment status
 New job (ref.)−0.03 (0.85)0.14 (1.03)0.26 (0.90)−0.06 (1.37)*
 No change0.05 (0.84)0.20 (0.93)−0.16 (0.88)†−0.08 (1.11)
 Lose job0.19 (0.96)†0.11 (0.90)*−0.62 (1.21)†−0.18 (1.43)†
 Key worker0.02 (0.87)0.28 (0.98)−0.08 (0.83)†−0.01 (1.01)*†
Time spent on housework
 Lowest quantile (ref.)0.05 (0.85)0.12 (0.92)−0.24 (0.99)−0.08 (1.13)
 Middle quantile0.03 (0.84)0.19 (0.94)−0.20 (0.92)−0.20 (1.30)*
 Highest quantile0.11 (0.88)†0.24 (0.93)†−0.19 (0.97)−0.05 (1.20)
 Change in loneliness0.36 (0.86)†0.47 (0.96)†
 Change in feeling of depressed0.40 (0.83)†0.52 (0.84)†
Loneliness
 Hardly ever (ref.)−0.23 (0.84)−0.13 (1.01)
 Some of the time−0.10 (1.08)†−0.03 (1.33)*†
 Often0.06 (1.42)†0.08 (1.52)*†
Feeling of depressed
 Not at all (ref.)−0.24 (0.80)−0.14 (0.98)
 Several days−0.04 (1.18)†−0.03 (1.35)*†
 More than half the days0.17 (1.55)†0.22 (1.75)*†
 Nearly every day−0.09 (1.42)0.28 (1.71)*†
  • *Gender difference is not statistically significant, based on linear regression models for each employment, life course stage or time use category with female as sole predictor.

  • †Within-gender difference between omitted life course stage (young, single, childless), employment status (not in the labour force), change in employment status (new job), non-key worker, worked less than 8 hours, time spent on housework (lowest quantile), loneliness (hardly ever) or feeling depressed (not at all) and focal category is statistically significant, based on linear regression models with these predictors as sole predictor. Change in financial situation and change in loneliness and feeling depressed are held at one SD above the mean as they are continuous measures.